How protein coronas determine the fate of engineered nanoparticles in biological environment
Nanomedicine is a booming medical field that utilises nanoparticles (NPs) for the development of medicines, medical devices, and diagnostic tools. The behaviour of NPs in vivo may be quite complex due to their interactions with biological molecules. These interactions in biological fluids result in NPs being enveloped by dynamic protein coronas, which serve as an interface between NPs and their environment (blood, cell, tissue). How will the corona interact with this environment will depend on the biological, chemical, and physical properties of NPs, the properties of the proteins that make the corona, as well as the biological environment. This review summarises the main characteristics of protein corona and describes its dynamic nature. It also presents the most common analytical methods to study the corona, including examples of protein corona composition for the most common NPs used in biomedicine. This knowledge is necessary to design NPs that will create a corona with a desired efficiency and safety in clinical use.