Superior protective effects of in vitro propagated green garlic against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cells
Garlic is a valuable source material for medicines due to its known antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. This study compares the protective effects of conventionally grown (CG) and in vitro propagated garlic (PG) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and their antioxidant activity. Garlic used in this study was obtained by planting garlic cloves or by planting the transplants of PG directly in the field. At the end of the vegetation period, CG and PG were sampled and extracts prepared for the experiment. Compared to conventionally grown garlic bulbs, PG leafy part yielded significantly higher content of polyphenols, flavonoids and alliin, and also showed equal or higher antioxidant activity, measured by the cell viability test, GSH and ROS level. Moreover, PG can be produced in less time (shorter vegetation period) and with significantly less material (cloves). Significantly higher content of alliin, polyphenols, and flavonoids and significantly higher yield of plant biomass in PG has a great potential to become a new production model with improved garlic properties as a medicine material.