Increased oxidative stress in shoe industry workers with low-level exposure to a mixture of volatile organic compounds

  • Nina Umićević University of Banja Luka Faculty of Medicine, Department of Toxicology, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Katarina Baralić University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Danijela Đukić-Ćosić University of Banja Luka Faculty of Medicine, Department of Toxicology, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Evica Miljaković Antonijević University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Aleksandra Buha Đorđević University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Marijana Ćurčić University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Zorica Bulat University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Biljana Anonijević University of Banja Luka Faculty of Medicine, Department of Toxicology, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; University of Belgrade Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology “Akademik Danilo Soldatović”, Belgrade, Serbia
Keywords: antioxidative defence parameters, occupational exposure, trace metals, VOC mixture

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the redox status and trace metal levels in 49 shoe industry workers (11 men and 38 women) occupationally exposed to a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which includes aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, ethers, and carboxylic acids. All measured VOCs were below the permitted occupational exposure limits. The control group included 50 unexposed participants (25 men and 25 women). The following plasma parameters were analysed: superoxide anion (O2•-), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total oxidative status (TOS), prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), oxidative stress index (OSI), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme activity, total SH group content (SHG), and total antioxidant status (TAS). Trace metal levels (copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, and manganese) were analysed in whole blood. All oxidative stress and antioxidative defence parameters were higher in the exposed workers than controls, except for PON1 activity. Higher Fe, Mg, and Zn, and lower Cu were observed in the exposed vs control men, while the exposed women had higher Fe and lower Mg, Zn, and Cu than their controls. Our findings confirm that combined exposure to a mixture of VOCs, even at permitted levels, may result in additive or synergistic adverse health effects and related disorders. This raises concern about current risk assessments, which mainly rely on the effects of individual chemicals, and calls for risk assessment approaches that can explain combined exposure to multiple chemicals.

Published
2024-03-06
How to Cite
1.
Umićević N, Kotur-Stevuljević J, Baralić K, Đukić-Ćosić D, Miljaković Antonijević E, Buha Đorđević A, Ćurčić M, Bulat Z, Anonijević B. Increased oxidative stress in shoe industry workers with low-level exposure to a mixture of volatile organic compounds. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol [Internet]. 2024Mar.6 [cited 2024May20];75(1). Available from: https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1667
Section
Original article