An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests

  • Gina Branica Radiation Protection Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
  • Marin Mladinić Mutagenesis Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
  • Dario Omanović Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory for physical chemistry of traces, Ruđer Bošković Institute http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5961-0485
  • Davor Želježić Mutagenesis Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Keywords: comet-FISH, in vitro, primary DNA damage, TP53, voltammetry

Abstract

Nanoparticle use has increased radically raising concern about possible adverse effects in humans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most common nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several studies indicate problems with their safe use. The aim of our study was to see at which levels ZnO NPs start to produce adverse cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as an early attempt toward establishing safety limits for ZnO NP exposure in humans. We assessed the genotoxic effects of low ZnO NP concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 µg mL-1) in lymphocyte cultures over 14 days of exposure. We also tested whether low and high-density lymphocytes differed in their ability to accumulate ZnO NPs in these experimental conditions. Primary DNA damage (measured with the alkaline comet assay) increased with nanoparticle concentration in unseparated and high density lymphocytes. The same happened with the fragmentation of TP53 (measured with the comet-FISH). Nanoparticle accumulation was significant only with the two highest concentrations, regardless of lymphocyte density. High-density lymphocytes had significantly more intracellular Zn2+ than light-density ones. Our results suggest that exposure to ZnO NPs in concentrations above 5 µg mL-1 increases cytogenetic damage and intracellular Zn2+ levels in lymphocytes.
Published
2016-12-15
How to Cite
1.
Branica G, Mladinić M, Omanović D, Želježić D. An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol [Internet]. 2016Dec.15 [cited 2019Oct.23];67(4). Available from: https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/674
Section
Original article