Effects of chronic exposure to lead, cadmium, and manganese mixtures on oxidative stress in rat liver and heart
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic combined exposure to low, environmental doses of Cd, Pb, and Mn on oxidative stress in the liver and heart of rats and on their liver function parameters. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups. For nine months controls were receiving drinking water alone, whereas the exposed groups were receiving drinking water with Pb (0.2 mg L-1), Cd (1 mg L-1), and Mn (2 mg L-1) alone or in combinations. Malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly increased in both heart and liver of the animals after combined exposure to metals. Heart MDA correlated with blood Cd, Pb, and Mn and liver MDA with blood Cd. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and bilirubin concentration also increased significantly in the animal group exposed to all three metals and correlated positively with blood Cd, Pb, and Mn. Our study has confirmed the synergistic effect of the Cd, Mn, and Pb combination on the increase in heart MDA. A similar synergy was observed for Pb+Mn in the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity as an indicator of liver function.