Determined and declared nicotine content in refill liquids for electronic cigarettes marketed in North Macedonia

  • Marija Srbinoska Scientific Tobacco Institute –Prilep, St. Kliment Ohridski University Bitola, Prilep
  • Zoran Kavrakoski Faculty of Pharmacy - Skopje, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje
  • Vesna Rafajlovska Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy – Skopje, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje
  • Jana Simonovska Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy – Skopje, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje
Keywords: e-liquids, gas chromatography, Tobacco Products Directive, vaping


The use of electronic cigarettes or vaping has been gaining momentum among Macedonian smokers but has also raised great many concerns about the toxicity of liquid refills and its aerosols, especially as the nicotine levels in refill liquids (e-liquids) are not required to be declared accurately or at all by current regulations. The aim of this study was therefore to determine nicotine levels in fifteen samples of e-liquids purchased in specialised shops in Macedonia using gas chromatography. Nicotine concentrations deviated from manufacturer’s declarations in nine of the twelve samples: in five they were higher and in four lower than declared, ranging from -16.7 % to +30.0 %. These significant discrepancies between the actual and declared nicotine concentrations in the analysed e-liquids call for closer attention of the healthcare and the regulating authorities.


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How to Cite
Srbinoska M, Kavrakoski Z, Rafajlovska V, Simonovska J. Determined and declared nicotine content in refill liquids for electronic cigarettes marketed in North Macedonia. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol [Internet]. 2019May31 [cited 2020Dec.2];70(2). Available from:
Original article