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Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms are responsible for individual variations in drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions. They are very important for pharmacogenetics, and their frequency varies across different populations. There is a big gap in the knowledge about the CYP gene family polymorphisms in the population of Kosovo, and the aim of our study was to fill that gap by determining the frequency of the most important variant alleles of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5 in 234 nonrelated Kosovars. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*2 and 2C9*3 were 17.52 %, and 10.89 %, respectively. Sixteen participants (6.81 %) were CYP2C9 poor metabolisers. The CYP2C19*2 and *17 variant frequencies were 13.03 % and 19.01 %, respectively. There were 2.13 % CYP2C19 poor and 4.27 % ultra-rapid metabolisers (homozygous carriers of the *17 allele). With regard to CYP3A5, the frequency of the *3 variant allele was 98.29 % (non-expressors), while the remaining participants 1.70 %) were expressors of CYP3A5. These findings are comparable with other European ethnicities, specifically those of Southeast Europe.
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