Ferroptosis: regulated cell death
Ferroptosis is a recently identified form of regulated cell death that differs from other known forms of cell death morphologically, biochemically, and genetically. The main properties of ferroptosis are free redox-active iron and consequent iron-dependent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membrane phospholipids, which results in the accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species due to loss of glutathione peroxidase 4 activity. Ferroptosis has increasingly been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, carcinogenesis, stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. It has also shown a significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review summarises current knowledge about and the mechanisms that regulate ferroptosis.