Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> en-US arhiv@imi.hr (Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju) mherman@imi.hr (Makso Herman) Wed, 25 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 In search of optimal psychoactivation: stimulants as cognitive performance enhancers https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1143 <p>An increasing number of people, students in particular, seek substances that improve their cognitive functioning. The most popular group of pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs) are stimulants. Available studies suggest a small beneficial effect of methylphenidate and amphetamine on memory, executive functions, and processing speed. However small, this effect can make the difference between success and failure. In recent years, research has focused on the additional beneficial effect on the emotional state, increased motivation, and placebo-induced cognitive enhancement. This paper briefly reviews the latest and most important research on the relationship between popular stimulants and cognitive enhancement. One cannot understand this relationship without understanding the Yerkes-Dodson law, which explains the relationship between the degree of arousal and performance. It suggests that the effect of stimulants is a dose-dependent continuum. This law has repeatedly been confirmed by studies in which an optimal level of psychoactivation for cognitive enhancement was obtained with low stimulant doses, whereas exceeding the effective dose resulted in cognitive deficits, psychomotor agitation, and addiction. A separate section has been devoted to modafinil, an increasingly popular stimulant that differs from the rest in neurochemical profile and behavioural effects.</p> Emil Bartosz Rozenek, Monika Górska, Karolina Wilczyńska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz Copyright (c) 2019 Emil Bartosz Rozenek, Monika Górska, Karolina Wilczyńska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1143 Fri, 23 Aug 2019 10:33:04 +0200 An overview of microtubule targeting agents for cancer therapy https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1086 <p>The entire world is looking for effective cancer therapies whose benefits would outweigh their toxicity. One way to reduce resistance to chemotherapy and its adverse effects is the so called targeted therapy, which targets specific molecules (“molecular targets”) that play a critical role in cancer growth, progression, and metastasis. One such specific target are microtubules. In this review we address the current knowledge about microtubule-targeting agents or drugs (MTAs/MTDs) used in cancer therapy from their synthesis to toxicities. Synthetic and natural MTAs exhibit antitumor activity, and preclinical and clinical studies have shown that their anticancer effectiveness is higher than that of traditional drug therapies. Furthermore, MTAs involve a lower risk of adverse effects such as neurotoxicity and haemotoxicity. Several new generation MTAs are currently being evaluated for clinical use. This review brings updated information on the benefits of MTAs, therapeutic approaches, advantages, and challenges in their research.</p> Bensu Karahalil, Sevgi Yardım-Akaydin, Nacak Baytas Copyright (c) 2019 Bensu Karahalil, Sevgi Yardım-Akaydin, Nacak Baytas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1086 Wed, 11 Sep 2019 11:50:12 +0200 A feasibility study on the association between residential greenness and neurocognitive function in middle-aged Bulgarians https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1174 <p>Recent research has indicated that exposure to residential vegetation ("greenness") may be protective against cognitive decline and may support the integrity of the corresponding brain structures. However, not much is known about these effects, especially in less affluent countries and in middle-aged populations. In this study, we investigated the associations between greenness and neurocognitive function. We used a convenience sample of 112 middle-aged Bulgarians and two cognitive tests: the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In addition, structural brain imaging data were available for 25 participants. Participants' home address was used to link cognition scores to the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of overall neighbourhood vegetation level (radii from 100 to 1,000&nbsp;m). Results indicated that higher NDVI was consistently associated with higher CERAD-NB and MoCA scores across radial buffers and adjustment scenarios. Lower waist circumference mediated the effect of NDVI on CERAD-NB. NDVI<sub>100-m</sub> was positively associated with average cortical thickness across both hemispheres, but these correlations turned marginally significant (P&lt;0.1) after correction for false discovery rate due to multiple comparisons. In conclusion, living in a greener neighbourhood might be associated with better cognitive function in middle-aged Bulgarians, with lower central adiposity partially accounting for this effect. Tentative evidence suggests that greenness might also contribute to structural integrity in the brain regions regulating cognitive functions. Future research should build upon our findings and investigate larger and more representative population groups.</p> Angel Dzhambov, Karamfil M. Bahchevanov, Kostadin A. Chompalov, Penka A. Atanassova Copyright (c) 2019 Angel Dzhambov, Karamfil M. Bahchevanov, Kostadin A. Chompalov, Penka A. Atanassova http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1174 Mon, 02 Sep 2019 10:23:22 +0200 Sleep coaching: non-pharmacological treatment of non-restorative sleep in Austrian railway shift workers https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1077 <p>Sleep coaching by Holzinger &amp; Klösch™ is a new, Gestalt therapy-based holistic approach to non-pharmacological treatment of non-restorative sleep. It includes psychotherapeutic aspects which enable participants to improve their sleep quality by developing their own coping strategies as a daily routine. Dream work and relaxation techniques are also part of the programme. The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a two-day sleep coaching seminar on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and work and life quality in shift workers employed in an Austrian railway company (Österreichische Bundesbahnen, ÖBB). Thirty shift workers (28 male; mean age=24±45.90, age range 24–56 years) answered the same survey before and six months after the seminar (baseline and follow-up) containing items of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), their chronotype, personality factors, and burnout risk factors. The baseline findings in this group were compared with those of non-completers (who did not take the follow-up survey) (N=154) to see if the two groups differed significantly enough to create a bias among completers (who took the follow-up survey as well). Groups differed significantly in burnout levels as well as sleep duration, but not in the distribution of critical PSQI and ESS values. The two-day sleep coaching seminar resulted in a significant improvement in total PSQI score and subjective sleep quality and in a significant reduction in diurnal fatigue, sleep latency, and daytime sleepiness. Nevertheless, more research with a larger sample and a longitudinal design is needed to establish the long-term effects of sleep coaching.</p> Brigitte Holzinger, Katharina Levec, Melissa-Marie Munzinger, Gerhard Klösch Copyright (c) 2019 Brigitte Holzinger, Katharina Levec, Melissa-Marie Munzinger, Gerhard Klösch http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1077 Thu, 29 Aug 2019 09:24:08 +0200 Association between shift work and obesity in a large sample of Iranian steel industry workers https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1099 <p>Obesity is associated with several chronic diseases, and previous research suggests that shift work could be associated with the risk of overweight and obesity, but the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, only a few studies report related findings for industrial workforce with high job-related stress. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to see if such association exists in a large sample of 3063 industrial workers in a developing country. The sample was selected among 16,000 steel company workers through multistage cluster sampling. We took anthropometric measurements, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Information about potential confounders was collected with a self-administered questionnaire. The association between shift work and both general and abdominal obesity was established with multinomial and binary logistic regression analysis. The study sample consisted of 1683 (54.9&nbsp;%) rotational shift workers and 1380 (45.1&nbsp;%) day workers. Shift work was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight after adjusting for the impacts of potential confounders (OR=1.2; 95&nbsp;% CI:1.04–1.4) but not with abdominal obesity. This study established that shift work was an independent risk factor for overweight in industrial shift workers. Modification of working schedules is recommended, particularly for prolonged, continuous shift work.</p> Najmeh Rabbanipour, Hamidreza Roohafza, Awat Feizi, Shahnaz Amani Tirani, Nizal Sarrafzadegan Copyright (c) 2019 Najmeh Rabbanipour, Hamidreza Roohafza, Awat Feizi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1099 Thu, 12 Sep 2019 14:09:29 +0200 Bioassay and alpha spectrometry in indirect monitoring of Spanish workers exposed to enriched uranium https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1065 <p>Workers at risk of exposure to uranium compounds should be monitored and their internal exposure quantified in terms of committed effective dose E(50) in mSv. <em>In vitro</em> bioassay methods can quantify uranium in urine and faeces at low activity levels. Alpha spectrometry (AS) is the most common method used for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides in internal dosimetry services. It provides isotopic information and low minimum detectable activity (MDA) values (≤0.50&nbsp;mBq per sample). This study reports the results of a five-year monitoring of workers exposed to uranium at a Spanish Juzbado facility, which produces nuclear fuel elements enriched with up to 5&nbsp;% of <sup>235</sup>U. Monitoring included about 100 workers per year, most of whom had worked at the facility for more than 10 years before the individual monitoring programme was established. We analysed nearly 550 samples of more than 200 workers over five years. The obtained results indicate that workers were adequately protected from uranium exposure through inhalation and had an acceptably low chronic intake at the facility.</p> Inmaculada Sierra, Carolina Hernández, Paula Albendea, Maria Antonia López Copyright (c) 2019 Inmaculada Sierra, Carolina Hernández, Paula Albendea, Maria Antonia López http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1065 Thu, 12 Sep 2019 13:36:43 +0200 Chemical composition and antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal potential of Valeriana alliariifolia in Turkey https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1112 <p>Valeriana is a common plant species used for various healing purposes in folk medicine since antiquity. This study investigates the phytochemical profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of <em>Valeriana alliariifolia</em> Adams, a species that has traditionally been used in Turkey. For the analyses we prepared four root extracts of <em>V. alliariifolia</em> Adams using hexane (HM1), chloroform (CM1), ethanol (EM1), and water (WM1) for maceration. Additionally, two extracts were also prepared from its roots by maceration separately with ethanol (EM2) and water (WM2). One sample was prepared as a water infusion (WI), according to the procedure used in Turkish traditional medicine. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity tests showed that ethanol extracts had the strongest antioxidant activity: EM1 (IC<sub>50 </sub>– DPPH: 17.694&nbsp;µg/mL; ABTS: 23.8&nbsp;µg/mL) and EM2 (IC<sub>50 </sub>– DPPH: 20&nbsp;µg/mL; ABTS: 21.5&nbsp;µg/mL). The hexane extract, HM1, was the most cytotoxic (IC<sub>50</sub>&lt;10&nbsp;µg/mL against HepG2 and HUVEC) and EM2 strongly cytotoxic (IC<sub>50</sub>&lt;10&nbsp;µg/mL against HepG2 and IC<sub>50</sub>: 11.96&nbsp;µg/mL against HUVEC). The extracts with demonstrated cytotoxic activities were further examined to check their insecticidal activity against adult female mosquito <em>Aedes aegypti </em>and first instar <em>Ae. aegypti</em> larvae. HM1 was the most effective (90±10&nbsp;%), which was consistent with its cytotoxic activity. Because of the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activities, we ran phytochemical analyses of the HM1, EM1, and EM2 extracts with GC-MS (for HM1) and LC-MS/MS (for EM1 and EM2). We also analysed the composition of the essential oil obtained from <em>V. alliariifolia </em>roots by micro-distillation in order to compare its content with HM1, which contains volatile compounds. Phytochemical analyses revealed that the major compound in HM1 was isovaleric acid (16&nbsp;%) and in the essential oil 1,8-cineole (2.9&nbsp;%). EM1 and EM2 contained 5-<em>O</em>-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), verbascoside (acteoside), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as major components. In the light of our findings and available literature, we can conclude that <em>V. alliariifolia</em> has a good bioactive potential that could be used for different purposes, including the development of new agents for the treatment of various diseases. The difference in the content between the essential oil and HM1 was remarkable. It suggests that the variability observed in the activity of the samples was a result of composition and that, therefore, the aim of treatment should dictate which type of preparation is to be selected. An added value of our study is that it determined verbascoside and methylquercetin rutinoside for the first time in the <em>Valeriana</em> extracts.</p> Burcu Sen-Utsukarci, Turgut Taskin, Fatih Goger, Nurhayat Tabanca, Alden S. Estep, Sonja M. Kessler, Ozlem Akbal-Dagistan, Hilal Bardakci, Mine Kurkcuoglu, James Becnel, Alexandra Kiemer, Afife Mat Copyright (c) 2019 Burcu Sen-Utsukarci, Turgut Taskin, Fatih Goger, Nurhayat Tabanca, Alden S. Estep, Sonja M. Kessler, Ozlem Akbal-Dagistan, Hilal Bardakci, Mine Kurkcuoglu, James Becnel, Alexandra Kiemer, Afife Mat http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1112 Mon, 23 Sep 2019 11:05:32 +0200 A cross sectional study of salt content in bakery bread in Zagreb, Croatia https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1119 <p>Reducing salt content in bread is the essential part of a national strategy for salt reduction with the goal of long-term national general health improvement. In this study we have analysed salt content in three types of bread available in 25 small and five national industrial bakeries in Zagreb, Croatia. Samples of white wheat bread, dark wheat bread, and other types of bread were collected, and the salt content was determined with the Mohr method. Salt content varied widely between bakeries, with an average content of 2.30±0.22&nbsp;g per 100&nbsp;g of bread, which is almost twice the threshold content (1.4&nbsp;%) defined by the Croatian National Regulation on Cereals and Cereal Products. Further efforts are necessary to teach bakers how to reduce salt content without affecting quality or flavour. These should go hand in hand with continuous monitoring of how the legal provisions are implemented.Reducing salt content in bread is the essential part of a national strategy for salt reduction with the goal of long-term national general health improvement. In this study we have analysed salt content in three types of bread available in 25 small and five national industrial bakeries in Zagreb, Croatia. Samples of white wheat bread, dark wheat bread, and other types of bread were collected, and the salt content was determined with the Mohr method. Salt content varied widely between bakeries, with an average content of 2.30±0.22&nbsp;g per 100&nbsp;g of bread, which is almost twice the threshold content (1.4&nbsp;%) defined by the Croatian National Regulation on Cereals and Cereal Products. Further efforts are necessary to teach bakers how to reduce salt content without affecting quality or flavour. These should go hand in hand with continuous monitoring of how the legal provisions are implemented.</p> Marija Delaš Aždajić, Ivančica Delaš, Stjepan Aždajić, Danijela Štimac Grbić, Nada Vahčić Copyright (c) 2019 Marija Delaš Aždajić, Ivančica Delaš, Stjepan Aždajić, Danijela Štimac Grbić, Nada Vahčić http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1119 Mon, 23 Sep 2019 11:26:21 +0200