Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 2.1</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 2.6</strong></strong></p> </div> en-US (Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju) (Makso Herman) Fri, 15 Dec 2023 10:23:09 +0100 OJS 60 Recent findings and advancements in the detection of designer benzodiazepines: a brief review <p>This review article takes a closer look at a new class of psychoactive substances called designer benzodiazepines (DBZs) and the challenges of their detection. These are adinazolam, clonazolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, etizolam, flualprazolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam. They are central nervous system depressants and sedatives that can cause psychomotor impairment and increase the overdose risk when combined with other sedatives. DBZs undergo phase I and II metabolism similar to traditional benzodiazepines, but their specific metabolic pathways and the influence of genetic polymorphisms are yet to be clarified. Advances in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have enhanced the method’s sensitivity for DBZs and their metabolites in biological samples and coupled with improved blood sampling methods require less blood for drug monitoring. Further research should focus on elucidating their pharmacokinetic properties and metabolism in humans, especially in view of genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions that could inform clinical treatment choices. Even though we have witnessed important advances in DBZ detection and measurement, further refinements are needed to expand the scope of detectable DBZs and their metabolites. All this should help toxicological research to better identify and characterise the risks of chronic and polydrug abuse and facilitate clinical, forensic, and regulatory responses to this growing issue.</p> Dihua Wu, Li Fu Copyright (c) 2023 Li Fu Thu, 30 Nov 2023 13:18:15 +0100 Salivary cortisone as potential predictor of occupational exposure to noise and related stress <p>Salivary cortisone strongly correlates with serum cortisol, and since it is less invasive to measure salivary cortisone than serum cortisol and easier than to measure cortisol in saliva, as its concentrations are much lower, we wanted to compare salivary cortisone and cortisol levels as markers of noise-induced stress reaction. The study included 104 participants aged 19–30 years, 50 of whom were exposed to occupational noise ≥85&nbsp;dB(A) and 54 non-exposed, control students. All participants took samples of their saliva with Salivette<sup>®</sup> Cortisol synthetic swabs on three consecutive working days first thing in the morning. Salivary cortisone and cortisol levels were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, they completed a 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) questionnaire, and occupationally noise-exposed participants also completed the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) questionnaire on occupational psychosocial risks. The exposed participants had significantly higher cortisone (P&lt;0.001) and cortisol (P&lt;0.001) levels than controls, and the correlation between cortisone and cortisol levels in the exposed participants was strong (ρ=0.692, P&lt;0.001), which suggests that salivary cortisone can replace cortisol measurements in saliva as a more reliable method than salivary cortisol and less invasive than serum cortisol. However, the level of perceived stress scored on PSS-10 in the exposed participants did not differ significantly from stress reported by controls, but correlated negatively with cortisone levels, which is contrary to our expectations and raises questions as to why.</p> Roko Žaja, Sanja Stipičević, Milan Milošević, Andro Košec, Jakov Ajduk, Iva Kelava, Adrijana Zglavnik Baća, Marko Klarica, Mihael Ries Copyright (c) 2023 Roko Žaja, Sanja Stipičević, Milan Milošević, Andro Košec, Jakov Ajduk, Iva Kelava, Adrijana Zglavnik Baća, Marko Klarica, Mihael Ries Mon, 20 Nov 2023 12:59:02 +0100 Psychometric validity of the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure and the Burnout Assessment Tool: a systematic review <p>In the absence of internationally recognised standardised criteria, several patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed to measure occupational burnout. The aim of this study was to extend our 2021 review of the psychometric validity of five PROMs to the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM) and the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT). To do that we ran a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase databases following our previous methodological framework and the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). We assessed the level of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guideline. We identified 694 publications on SMBM and 421 on BAT, but the final review includes eight papers on SMBM and three on BAT. Of the seven psychometric properties assessed for SMBM, content, structural, and criterion validity were rated as insufficient, whereas the quality of evidence for construct and internal consistency was high and moderate, respectively. Of the nine psychometric properties assessed for BAT, content, structural, criterion, and construct validity was moderate and internal consistency was high. One limitation of this study is that we did not assess cross-cultural validity, because the number of studies reviewed is too small and content validity can only be assessed based on the original PROM version rather than translation. To conclude, BAT is superior to SMBM in terms of psychometric validity, but the quality of evidence for some properties is low or very low, suggesting a need for additional validation studies.</p> Yara Shoman, Roy Hostettler, Irina Guseva Canu Copyright (c) 2023 Yara Shoman Wed, 22 Nov 2023 13:04:50 +0100 Mortality, cancer incidence, and disability among professional drivers in Slovenia <p>Literature data about all-cause and cause-specific mortality among professional drivers are inconsistent. Most studies report lower all-cause and higher cause-specific mortality. Higher cause-specific mortality is most often the result of malignant and circulatory diseases. The aim of our retrospective cohort study was to get a better insight into the mortality, cancer incidence, and occupational disability of the entire professional driver population in Slovenia (N=8,231) from 1997 to 2016 through standardised mortality ratio (SMR), standardised proportional mortality ratio (SPMR), standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR), and standardised disability ratio (SDR). Total mortality was significantly lower than that of the general working population (SMR=0.49; 95&nbsp;% CI=0.44–0.55). When SPMR was calculated, however, the risk of all-cause mortality increased to 1 (SPMR=1.00; 95&nbsp;% CI=0.89–1.12), of cancer-related mortality to 1.13 (95&nbsp;% CI=0.94–1.35), and of injury-related mortality to 1.25 (95&nbsp;% CI=0.97–1.59). Cancer incidence was lower than in the general male working population for all types of cancer (SIR=0.66; 95&nbsp;% CI=0.59–0.72), lung cancer included (SIR=0.56; 95&nbsp;% CI=0.41–0.73). Occupational all-cause and cause-specific disability were also lower than in the rest of the working population. Even though all types of cancer and injuries were established among professional drivers in Slovenia, no major risk stand out. However, our findings may have been skewed by the healthy worker effect.</p> Andrea Margan, Metoda Dodič Fikfak Copyright (c) 2023 Metoda Dodič Fikfak, Andrea Margan Fri, 01 Dec 2023 10:41:43 +0100 Occupational and non-occupational risk factors correlating with the severity of clinical manifestations of carpal tunnel syndrome and related work disability among workers who work with a computer <p>The contribution of certain occupational and personal factors to the development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is still uncertain. We investigated which specific occupational and non-occupational factors correlate with the level of clinical manifestations and work disability related to CTS. The study included 190 workers who work with a computer and have diagnosed CTS (100 men, 90 women, aged 20–65 years). Subjective experience of CTS-related impairments was assessed with the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and the Functional Status Scale (FSS) of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ). The objective, neural impairments were tested with electrodiagnostics (EDX), whereas CTS-related work disability data were collected from medical records. We found a high inter-correlation between BCTQ, EDX, and work disability data. These also showed high correlations with certain occupational factors (duration of computer-working in months and hours spent daily in computer-working, certain ergonomic, microclimatic, and other occupational conditions) and non-occupational factors (demographic and lifestyle factors: nutritional status, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity). Despite its limitations, our study has identified occupational and non-occupational risk factors that can aggravate CTS and work disability, but which can also be improved with workplace and lifestyle preventive and corrective measures. More research is needed, though, to establish the possible causal relationships and the independent influence of each of those risk factors.</p> Blerim Çupi, Ivana Šarac, Jovana Jovanović, Stefan Jovanović, Gordana Petrović-Oggiano, Jasmina Debeljak-Martačić, Jovica Jovanović Copyright (c) 2023 Blerim Çupi, Ivana Šarac, Jovana Jovanović, Stefan Jovanović, Gordana Petrović-Oggiano, Jasmina Debeljak-Martačić, Jovica Jovanović Wed, 13 Dec 2023 14:19:24 +0100 Assessment of the impacts of ergonomic risk factors on shopping centre employees <p>Employees of shopping malls face various physiological and psychological health problems due to their specific working conditions. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors for employees (N=222) from three shopping centres in the city of Erzurum, Turkey. We wanted to learn more about the attitudes of the shopping mall employees regarding their current working conditions, which we hoped would help us propose measures for the elimination or reduction of the most prominent ergonomic risk factors. Data were collected between May 1 and July 1, 2022 using our own questionnaire, which consisted of questions regarding personal characteristics (gender, age, education level, marital status, working year, unit, working position, nature of the job, presence of chronic disease, etc.) and the Workplace Ergonomics Scale, which consists of 32 items divided into 6 sub-dimensions (Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental Conditions, Psychological Elements, Employee Safety, Workplace Social Environment, and Working Environment). The obtained results indicated that the majority of employees were young, healthy, high school graduates mainly working as sales consultants. Their average income was low, their working hours were long, and they found their rest periods shorter than needed. The study found that, although shopping centre employees rated their work environment as low risk in terms of ergonomics, their scores on the workplace ergonomics scale were above average. The results of this study could contribute to a better understanding and identification of ergonomic risks in the trade sector and serve for planning future prevention strategies.</p> Abdullah Köse, Ömer Gündoğdu Copyright (c) 2023 ABDULLAH KÖSE, ÖMER GÜNDOĞDU Thu, 30 Nov 2023 13:18:44 +0100 UVC-LED-based face mask design and efficacy against common germs <p>During the Covid-19 pandemic, one of the best means of personal protection was using face masks. In this context, the World Health Organization has declared the attempts to produce masks inactivating airborne virus species a welcome initiative. This preliminary study aimed to prove that airborne germs passing through a mask filter cartridge can be destroyed by the rays emitted from UVC LEDs placed in such cartridge. We therefore designed such a face mask and tested the efficiency of UVC LEDs placed in its cartridge against common contaminants, gram-positive <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, gram-negative <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus because of its similarity with SARS CoV-2. Eight UVC LEDs with a total power of 75 mW provided sufficient germicidal effect for all three germs. In terms of safety, ozone production released during UVC LED emission was negligible. Our findings are promising, as they show that well-designed UVC-based face masks can be effective against airborne germs, but further research on a greater sample may help us learn more and optimise such face masks.</p> Ali Gelir , Omer F. Kadi, Faruk Asicioglu, Aysegul Sen Yilmaz, Mert Kuskucu, Mehmet Doymaz, Onur B. Ozdemir, Devrim Saribal, Seda Salman, Omer F. Kadi, Sedat Ozdemir, Sinem N. Seyhan Copyright (c) 2023 Ali Gelir , Omer F. Kadi, Faruk Asicioglu, Aysegul Sen Yilmaz, Mert Kuskucu, Mehmet Doymaz, Onur B. Ozdemir, Devrim Saribal, Seda Salman, Omer F. Kadi, Sedat Ozdemir, Sinem N. Seyhan Mon, 06 Nov 2023 12:32:40 +0100 Accidental ingestion of concentrated white vinegar in Hatay children in Turkey <p>White vinegar which contains high concentrations (~85 %) of acetic acid is a staple ingredient used in food preparation in many Mediterranean cuisines but in small amounts. Being corrosive, it can cause ulcerative injury to the oropharynx and oesophagus and upset the stomach with resulting nausea and vomiting. This study presents 11 cases of paediatric patients (five boys and six girls, aged between 11 and 89 months) with oesophageal strictures who drank white vinegar by accident. They all received endoscopic oesophageal dilation (with a bougie) ranging from one to 28 per patient, depending on the severity of the injury. Follow-up showed uneventful healing in eight patients, who at the time of the telephone call were able to swallow solids and liquids normally. Two patients who could not be reached by telephone were found healthy by consulting the national database (e-Nabız). Unfortunately, one patient, who was discharged without any symptoms after the first dilation, suffered massive gastrointestinal bleeding 24 hours after the dilation and died. The loss of this patient shows that ingesting white vinegar can be very dangerous in children, especially if parents delay seeking medical help. We believe that controlling the production and sales of highly concentrated white vinegar and selling it in child-proof containers can help to prevent accidental ingestions by children and tragic outcomes such as the one reported here.</p> Ahmet Atıcı, Lina Miçooğulları, Bahar Uğur, Mehmet Emin Çelikkaya, Bülent Akçora Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmet Atıcı, Lina Miçooğulları, Bahar Uğur, Mehmet Emin Çelikkaya, Bülent Akçora Fri, 08 Dec 2023 10:24:42 +0100 A suicide attempt by ingestion of oleander leaves and treatment with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments <p>Natural cardiac glycosides have positive inotropic heart effects but at high, toxic doses they can cause life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Here we present the first Croatian case of a 16-year-old girl who attempted suicide by eating dried oleander leaves, which contain natural cardiac glycosides, and her treatment with a specific antidote. The girl presented with an oedema of the uvula indicating local toxicity, severe bradycardia, first-degree atrioventricular block, drowsiness, and vomiting. Having taken her medical history, we started treatment with atropine, intravenous infusion of dextrose-saline solution and gastroprotection, but it was not successful. Then we introduced digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments and within two hours, the patient's sinus rhythm returned to normal. Cases of self-poisoning with this oleander are common in South-East Asia, because it is often used as a medicinal herb, and digoxin-specific Fab fragments have already been reported as effective antidote against oleander poisoning there. Our case has taught us that it is important to have this drug in the hospital pharmacy both for digitalis and oleander poisoning.</p> Tanja Kovačević, Branka Polić, Tatjana Ćatipović Ardalić, Davor Petrović, Luka Stričević, Joško Markić Copyright (c) 2023 Tanja Kovačević, Branka Polić, Tatjana Ćatipović Ardalić, Davor Petrović, Luka Stričević, Joško Markić Wed, 13 Dec 2023 10:17:01 +0100