Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> en-US (Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju) (Makso Herman) Tue, 11 Jun 2019 11:13:40 +0200 OJS 60 Pyrethroid exposure and neurotoxicity: a mechanistic approach <p>Pyrethroids are a class of synthetic insecticides that are used widely in and around households to control the pest. Concerns about exposure to this group of pesticides are now mainly related to their neurotoxicity and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease. The main neurotoxic mechanisms include oxidative stress, inflammation, neuronal cell loss, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The main neurodegeneration targets are ion channels. However, other receptors, enzymes, and several signalling pathways can also participate in disorders induced by pyrethroids. The aim of this review is to elucidate the main mechanisms involved in neurotoxicity caused by pyrethroids deltamethrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin. We also review common targets and pathways of Parkinson’s disease therapy, including Nrf2, Nurr1, and PPARγ, and how they are affected by exposure to pyrethroids. We conclude with possibilities to be addressed by future research of novel methods of protection against neurological disorders caused by pesticides that may also find their use in the management/treatment of Parkinson’s disease.</p> Hamidreza Mohammadi, Nasrin Ghassemi-Barghi, Obeid Malakshah, Sorour Ashari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 10 Jun 2019 11:11:58 +0200 Management recommendations for body stuffers at emergency units <p>Managing body packers and stuffers is a challenge to emergency physicians, stuffers in particular, as there is no systematic approach to their treatment. The aim of this study was therefore to review all available literature on body stuffing and propose a guide to manage these patients. We searched Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus for published work on body stuffers using key words "body stuffer", "body stuffing", "poisoning", "toxicity", and "treatment" without a time limit and retrieved 290 articles, of which 61 remained after exclusion of those on "body packers" and repetitive documents. This review article evaluates and summarises the information gathered from them. The main step in body stuffer management is observation to make sure that they have passed all the swallowed packages of drugs of abuse. In some cases, imaging can be quite useful. Diagnostic pitfalls may be avoided with abdominopelvic CT without contrast, which is probably the best diagnostic method to determine the presence and the number of packages in these patients. Treatment should be specific for each group of drugs, whether it is opioids, cocaine, or amphetamine. Surgical interventions are indicated for obstruction of the intestines or package rupture. Legal precautions should be taken because of the legal complexity of body stuffing cases.</p> Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Fatemeh Amraei, Nasim Zamani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 21 May 2019 13:48:03 +0200 The association between the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and addiction in a Turkish population <p>Susceptibility to addiction has a complex genetic basis that includes genes associated with the action and metabolism of drugs of abuse. One important gene in that respect is <em>OPRM1</em>, which codes for the μ-opioid receptor and has an important role in mediating the rewarding effects of addiction substances. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of the <em>OPRM1 </em>A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) in Turkish population and to investigate its association with opioid and other substance addiction. In addition, we examined the association of rs1799971 in addicted patients who were also diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The study included 103 patients addicted to opioids, cocaine, ecstasy, alcohol, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), cannabis, and sedative/hypnotic substances and 83 healthy volunteers with similar demographic features as controls. rs1799971 polymorphisms were identified with the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the addicted patients than controls (32.0&nbsp;% vs 16.9&nbsp;%, respectively; p=0.027). The prevalence of the G allele was 16.1&nbsp;% in the addicted group and 8.4&nbsp;% in the control group (p=0.031). Our study confirmed the association between the rs1799971(G) allele frequency and opioid and other substance addiction, but not with psychiatric disorders.</p> Hülya Türkan, Bensu Karahalil, Ela Kadıoğlu, Kenan Eren, Defne Tamar Gürol, Ali Esat Karakaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Apr 2019 11:04:22 +0200 Absence of mutations in the human interferon alpha-2b gene in workers chronically exposed to ionising radiation <p>Individuals chronically exposed to low-level ionising radiation (IR) run the risk of harmful and long-term adverse health effects, including gene mutations and cancer development. The search for reliable biomarkers of IR exposure in human population is still of great interest, as they may have a great implementation potential for the surveillance of occupationally exposed individuals. In this context, and considering previous literature, this study aimed to identify mutations in the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN?-2b) as a potential biomarker of occupational chronic low-dose IR exposure linking low-IR exposure to the effects on haematopoiesis and reduced immunity. The analysis was performed in the genomic DNA of 51 uranium miners and 38 controls from Kazakhstan, and in 21 medical radiology workers and 21 controls from Italy. hIFN?-2b gene mutations were analysed with the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Sanger sequencing. However, none of the investigated workers had the hIFN?-2b mutation. This finding highlights the need for further research to identify biomarkers for early detection of health effects associated with chronic low-dose IR exposure.</p> Dauren M. Botbayev, Gloria Ravegnini, Giulia Sammarini, PK Kazymbet, Elisabetta Cilli, Patrizia Serventi, AK Khanseitova, B Alzhanuly, AM Belkozhaev, NA Aitkhozina, M Bakhtin, Patrizia Hrelia, Sabrina Angelini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Apr 2019 15:29:39 +0200 Employment status and other predictors of mental health and cognitive functions in older Croatian workers <p>The aim of this study was to examine mental health and cognitive functions in older Croatian workers (50–65 years) taking into account their employment status, self-assessed health, and a set of demographic characteristics. We analysed the data collected on 650 older workers (71&nbsp;% employed) in the Wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Unemployed workers reported symptoms of loneliness more often than the employed, while in rural areas unemployment was additionally associated with more pronounced symptoms of depression. Feeling of loneliness was also higher in those living without a partner in the household and in those with poorer health. In urban residents symptoms of depression were more severe in women, respondents with higher education, those living without a partner, and those who rated their health as poorer. As for cognitive functions, unemployment significantly predicted poorer subtraction in the rural subsample. Women in general showed less efficient numerical abilities. In the urban subsample poorer numerical abilities were also associated with lower education and living without a partner in the household. Better verbal recall was predicted by higher education and better self-rated memory. Higher scores in verbal fluency were predicted by urban residency and better self-rated health. Our results indicate that the protective factors for good mental health and cognitive functioning in older Croatian workers are being employed, having more education, living with a partner in the household, and being healthier. These findings stress the importance of implementing broader social policy strategies covering employment, education, and health.</p> Adrijana Bjelajac, Jasminka Bobić, Jelena Kovačić, Veda Marija Varnai, Jelena Macan, Šime Smolić ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 10 Jun 2019 10:26:07 +0200 Urine tropenol ester levels in workers handling tiotropium bromide synthesis: implications for exposure prevention and biomonitoring <p>Tropenol ester is a highly toxic anticholinergic substance and an intermediate used in industrial production of the bronchodilator tiotropium bromide. The aim of this study was to systematically test workers involved in its production for tropenol ester in urine to identify any exposure pathways and define additional preventive measures. Twelve workers performing tasks involving potential exposure to tropenol ester were repeatedly monitored at the end of each production cycle. Medical exams revealed no symptoms of acute poisoning with tropenol ester, but biological monitoring of urine showed 36 positive findings in 79 samples, with tropenol ester concentrations ranging between the detection limit of 54&nbsp;pg/mL and 2160&nbsp;pg/mL. We managed to establish the cause of only one positive finding, which was a hole in a protective glove, whereas the rest most likely occurred due to human error. Because of this, the plant decided to modify the production process by replacing tropenol ester with a safer intermediate. While it is the safest course of action, there where it cannot be taken, biological monitoring can be very helpful in raising awareness about exposure to toxic substances, including the new ones that have not been studied for their adverse potential.</p> Axel Muttray, Michael Schneider, Bernd Roßbach ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 11:04:15 +0200 Dynamics of exhaled breath temperature after smoking a cigarette and its association with lung function changes predictive of COPD risk in smokers: a cross-sectional study <p>Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) is a biomarker of inflammation and vascularity of the airways already shown to predict incident COPD. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the potential of EBT in identifying "healthy" smokers susceptible to cigarette smoke toxicity of the airways and to the risk of developing COPD by analysing the dynamics of EBT after smoking a cigarette and its associations with their demographics (age, smoking burden) and lung function. The study included 55 current smokers of both sexes, 29–62 years of age, with median smoking exposure of 15 (10–71.8) pack-years. EBT was measured at baseline and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60&nbsp;min after smoking a single cigarette. Lung function was measured with spirometry followed by a bronchodilator test. To compare changes in EBT between repeated measurements we used the analysis of variance and the area under the curve (EBT<sub>AUC</sub>) as a dependent variable. Multivariate regression analysis was used to look for associations with patient characteristics and lung function in particular. The average (±SD) baseline EBT was 33.42±1.50&nbsp;°C. The highest significant increase to 33.84 (1.25)&nbsp;°C was recorded 5&nbsp;min after the cigarette was smoked (p=0.003), and it took one hour for it to return to the baseline. EBT<sub>AUC</sub> showed significant repeatability (ICC=0.85, p&lt;0.001) and was significantly associated with age, body mass index, number of cigarettes smoked a day, baseline EBT, and baseline FEF<sub>75</sub> (R<sup>2</sup>=0.39, p&lt;0.001 for the model). Our results suggest that EBT after smoking a single cigarette could be used as early risk predictor of changes associated with chronic cigarette smoke exposure.</p> Ivana Huljev Šipoš, Slavica Labor, Iva Jurić, Davor Plavec, Kristian Vlahoviček, Siniša Bogović, Justinija Pavkov Vukelić, Marina Labor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 15:18:31 +0200 Determined and declared nicotine content in refill liquids for electronic cigarettes marketed in North Macedonia <p>The use of electronic cigarettes or vaping has been gaining momentum among Macedonian smokers but has also raised great many concerns about the toxicity of liquid refills and its aerosols, especially as the nicotine levels in refill liquids (e-liquids) are not required to be declared accurately or at all by current regulations. The aim of this study was therefore to determine nicotine levels in fifteen samples of e-liquids purchased in specialised shops in Macedonia using gas chromatography. Nicotine concentrations deviated from manufacturer’s declarations in nine of the twelve samples: in five they were higher and in four lower than declared, ranging from -16.7&nbsp;% to +30.0&nbsp;%. These significant discrepancies between the actual and declared nicotine concentrations in the analysed e-liquids call for closer attention of the healthcare and the regulating authorities.</p> Marija Srbinoska, Zoran Kavrakoski, Vesna Rafajlovska, Jana Simonovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 15:13:15 +0200 The relationship between antioxidant activity, first electrochemical oxidation potential, and spin population of flavonoid radicals <p>I have shown that by averaging antioxidant activity (AA) values measured by different methods it is possible to obtain an excellent correlation (<em>R</em><sup>2</sup>=0.960) between the first electrochemical oxidation potential, <em>E</em><sub>p1</sub>, and AA. Separate correlations using the AA values obtained with each of the four methods [<em>R</em><sup>2</sup> were 0.599 for diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.884 for Folin Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), 0.953 for the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and 0.719 for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)] were all worse, and in some cases not useful at all, such as the one for DPPH. Also, the sum of atomic orbital spin populations on the carbon atoms in the skeleton of radicals (AOSP<sub>Rad</sub>), calculated with the semi-empirical parameterisation method 6 (PM6) in water, was used to correlate both <em>E</em><sub>p1</sub> and AA, yielding <em>R</em><sup>2</sup>=0.926 and 0.950, respectively. This showed to be a much better variable for the estimation of <em>E</em><sub>p1</sub> and AA than the bond dissociation energy (BDE), <em>R</em><sup>2</sup>=0.854 and 0.901 for <em>E</em><sub>p1</sub> and AA, respectively, and especially the ionisation potential (IP), <em>R</em><sup>2</sup>=0.445 and 0.435 for <em>E</em><sub>p1</sub> and AA, respectively.</p> Ante Miličević ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 May 2019 11:02:44 +0200 Faecal indicator bacteria and antibiotic-resistant β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in blackwater: a pilot study <p>The aim of this study was to identify and quantify faecal indicator bacteria in blackwater collected from a source separation unit and determine the amount of <em>E. coli</em> isolates resistant to antimicrobials and their potential to produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs), which hydrolyse the most important antibiotics used in clinical practice. Most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (36.4&nbsp;%), followed by ticarcillin with clavulanic acid (22.7&nbsp;%) and tetracycline (18.2&nbsp;%). ESβL-producing genes <em>bla</em><sub>CTX-M</sub> and <em>bla</em><sub>TEM</sub> were found in three (13.6&nbsp;%) and four (18.2&nbsp;%) <em>E. coli</em> strains, respectively, while MβL genes were found in two (9.1&nbsp;%). By separating at source, this pilot study clearly shows that gastrointestinal bacteria of healthy people can be an important source of antibiotic resistance released into the environment through wastewaters. One way to prevent that is to treat wastewater with a combination of TiO<sub>2</sub>, UV light, or ozone, as successful methods to remove resistant bacteria and prevent their spread in the environment.</p> Urška Šunta, Miha Žitnik, Noemi Concetta Finocchiaro, Tjaša Griessler Bulc, Karmen Godič Torkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Jun 2019 10:03:48 +0200 Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol addiction: a serious health threat Renata Beck, Suzana Mimica Matanović, Lada Zibar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Jun 2019 10:19:34 +0200