Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health en-US Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 0004-1254 Ferroptosis: regulated cell death https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1211 <p>Ferroptosis is a recently identified form of regulated cell death that differs from other known forms of cell death morphologically, biochemically, and genetically. The main properties of ferroptosis are free redox-active iron and consequent iron-dependent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membrane phospholipids, which results in the accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species due to loss of glutathione peroxidase 4 activity. Ferroptosis has increasingly been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, carcinogenesis, stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. It has also shown a significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review summarises current knowledge about and the mechanisms that regulate ferroptosis.</p> Ivana Čepelak Slavica Dodig Daniela Čepelak Dodig Copyright (c) 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3366 Renal changes and apoptosis caused by subacute exposure to Aroclor 1254 in selenium-deficient and selenium-supplemented rats https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1208 <p>Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls, exerts hepatic, renal, and reproductive toxicity in rodents. This study aimed to determine a protective role of selenium on histopathological changes, oxidative stress, and apoptosis caused by A1254 in rat kidney. It included a control group, which received regular diet containing 0.15&nbsp;mg/kg Se (C), a Se-supplemented group (SeS) receiving 1&nbsp;mg/kg Se, a Se-deficient group (SeD) receiving Se-deficient diet of ≤0.05&nbsp;mg/kg Se, an A1254-treated group (A) receiving 10&nbsp;mg/kg of Aroclor 1254 and regular diet, an A1254-treated group receiving Se-supplementation (ASeS), and an A1254-treated group receiving Se-deficient diet (ASeD). Treatments lasted 15 days. After 24&nbsp;h of the last dose of A1254, the animals were decapitated under anaesthesia and their renal antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione, protein oxidation, and total antioxidant capacity levels measured. Histopathological changes were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was detected with the TUNEL assay. Kidney weights, CAT activities, and GSH levels decreased significantly in all A1254-treated groups. Renal atrophic changes and higher apoptotic cell counts were observed in the A and ASeD groups. Both groups also showed a significant drop in GPx1 activities (A – 34.92&nbsp;% and ASeD – 86.46&nbsp;%) and rise in LP (A – 30.45&nbsp;% and ASeD – 20.44&nbsp;%) vs control. In contrast, LP levels and apoptotic cell counts were significantly lower in the ASeS group vs the A group. Histopathological changes and renal apoptosis were particularly visible in the ASeD group. Our findings suggest that selenium supplementation provides partial protection against renal toxicity of Aroclor 1254.</p> Naciye Dilara Zeybek Unzile Sur Ofcan Oflaz Pinar Erkekoglu Aylin Balci Gizem Ozkemahli Ali Asci Murat Kizilgun Oguz Han Edebal Belma Kocer-Gumusel Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3360 Nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in juvenile rats and possible mechanisms of action https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1210 <p>Because of their widespread use and potential adverse effects in young developing organism, this study focused on the nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity of chronic low-dose exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in 32 14-day-old male Wistar rats, randomly divided into three groups receiving AgNP solution (3&nbsp;mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally for one, two, or three weeks and the untreated control group (eight animals per group). When the rats were eight weeks old, blood creatinine and urine microalbumin were tested, followed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) staining. Proteinuria was found in the animals treated with AgNP for three weeks, and H&amp;E staining revealed pathological changes in the kidney sections of this group. DNA damage was detected with the alkaline comet assay in the groups treated for two and three weeks. All results indicate that chronic exposure, even at a low dose, may affect animal health. The main culprit might be increased and time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Highly reactive ROS could cause a major structural damage to proteins and DNA, change the expression of ion channel proteins, and trigger inflammation. The findings of our <em>in vivo</em> experiment raise concern about nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in young organisms and call for further investigation of nanoparticle properties that can be modified to minimise the risks.</p> Liu Ye Sun Li Yang Guili Yang Zhuo Copyright (c) 2020-05-28 2020-05-28 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3364 Superior protective effects of in vitro propagated green garlic against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cells https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1248 <p>Garlic is a valuable source material for medicines due to its known antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. This study compares the protective effects of conventionally grown (CG) and <em>in vitro</em> propagated garlic (PG) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and their antioxidant activity. Garlic used in this study was obtained by planting garlic cloves or by planting the transplants of PG directly in the field. At the end of the vegetation period, CG and PG were sampled and extracts prepared for the experiment. Compared to conventionally grown garlic bulbs, PG leafy part yielded significantly higher content of polyphenols, flavonoids and alliin, and also showed equal or higher antioxidant activity, measured by the cell viability test, GSH and ROS level. Moreover, PG can be produced in less time (shorter vegetation period) and with significantly less material (cloves). Significantly higher content of alliin, polyphenols, and flavonoids and significantly higher yield of plant biomass in PG has a great potential to become a new production model with improved garlic properties as a medicine material.</p> Tomislav Vinković Nada Parađiković Monika Tkalec Kojić Gordana Mendaš Tanja Živković Semren Valentina Gluščić Ivana Vinković Vrček Ivan Pavičić Copyright (c) 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3399 Contribution of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes to total fibre intake in adult Croatian Dalmatian population https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1149 <p>There is compelling evidence that fruit, vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes make about 80&nbsp;% of the total food fibre intake and have a potential to help in the prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate total fibre intake from consumption of this fibre-rich food, partly reported in our earlier study in Croatian adult population. Current data analysis involved a non-probabilistic sample of 1,034 adult participants from Dalmatia, Croatia who responded to a validated food frequency questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015. We also analysed the sales data obtained from three shopping centres in the Zadar area (Croatian coast) to establish a list of most frequently bought fruit, vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes and to calculate dietary fibre (DF) intake for each of the top-selling items and conversion factors for each food group. We then used these conversion factors to calculate individual total fibre intake (TFI) in our population. It was 11.4&nbsp;g per person per day, which is less than half the recommended dietary requirements. On average, respondents reported to consume one piece of fruit and one meal of vegetables a day, which is less than half the daily recommendation for either. 25.8&nbsp;% of respondents reported no consumption of whole cereals at all, and only 0.2&nbsp;% of the population consumed the recommended 3–5 servings of whole grains or legumes a day. We also observed significantly higher consumption of fruit and whole grains/legumes in women than men. Our findings alert to poor dietary fibre intake in Croatian adult population, which is similar to other western countries and points to issues deeply rooted in these economies. However, our findings may be either an over- or under-estimation and need to be verified through longitudinal research on a wider sample using more precise tools.</p> Marijana Matek Sarić Marija Ljubičić Ivana Lapčić Raquel Pinho Ferreira Guiné Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3305 Metal-loaded zeolite remediation of soils contaminated with pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1175 <p>Due to the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents, bacterium <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> is nowadays a leading cause of nosocomial outbreaks. Clinically relevant <em>A. baumannii</em> outside hospital settings including natural soils affected by human waste represents a public-health risk for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of metal-loaded zeolites to eliminate viable <em>A. baumannii</em> from artificially contaminated natural soils. <em>A. baumannii</em> isolate was subjected to the activity of natural zeolitised tuff (NZ) and Cu-modified (CuNZ) or Ag-modified zeolite (AgNZ) in wet, slightly acidic <em>terra rossa</em> and slightly alkaline red palaeosol. <em>A. baumannii</em> survived in <em>terra rossa</em> and red palaeosol supplemented with 1&nbsp;wt% of NZ for seven days and four months, respectively. The addition of 1&nbsp;wt% of CuNZ to <em>terra rossa</em> and red palaeosol shortened the survival of <em>A. baumannii</em> to three and 14 days, respectively. The addition of 0.1&nbsp;wt% of AgNZ to both soils resulted in complete removal of viable <em>A. baumannii</em> within 1&nbsp;h of contact, while the&nbsp; total native heterotrophic bacterial counts remained high. Since AgNZ is prepared with a simple modification of cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural zeolite, it is a promising material for the remediation of soils contaminated with pandrug-resistant <em>A. baumannii</em>.</p> Jasna Hrenović Svjetlana Dekić Jelena Dikić Snježana Kazazić Goran Durn Nevenka Rajić Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3327 Potential benefit of retrospective use of neutron monitors in improving ionising radiation exposure assessment on international flights: issues raised by neutron passive dosimeter measurements and EPCARD simulations during sudden changes in solar activity https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1252 <p>Since air transport became more accessible, more and more people have been exposed to ionising radiation of cosmic origin. Measuring the neutron dose equivalent is a good approximation of total ambient dose equivalent, as neutrons carry about 50&nbsp;% of the dose at flight altitudes. The aim of our study was to compare our measurements of the neutron component of secondary cosmic radiation dose, taken with passive dosimeters, with the data obtained from a simulation generated by EPCARD software, which is common in assessing flight crew exposure to ionising radiation. We observed deviations (both above and below) from the expected proportion of the neutron component (between 40 and 80&nbsp;%), which pointed to certain issues with actual passive dosimeter measurement and the EPCARD simulation. The main limitation of the dosimeter are large uncertainties in high energy neutron response, which may result in underestimation of neutron dose equivalent. The main drawback of the software simulation is monthly averaging of solar potential in calculations, which can neglect sporadic high energy events. Since airlines worldwide almost exclusively use software (due to costs and convenience) to estimate the dose received by their crew, it is advisable to retrospectively recalculate the dose taking into account neutron monitor readings when solar activity changes.</p> Marina Poje Sovilj Branko Vuković Vanja Radolić Igor Miklavčić Denis Stanić Copyright (c) 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3403 Skin burns from monochloroacetic acid leak in a chemical plant: a case report https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1250 <p>The patient, a 45-year-old male chemical factory worker, was burned by monochloroacetic acid discharged from a ruptured pipe. The patient was merely flushed with water and did not leave the workplace immediately. As a result, he suffered local burn symptoms, which gradually worsened. Two and a half hours after the accident, he developed symptoms of systemic poisoning, such as lethargy and dyspnoea. After a thorough debridement of the wound surface and subsequent skin grafting combined with early glucocorticoid therapy and haemofiltration, a satisfactory result was achieved, and the patient eventually recovered. With the widespread use of monochloroacetic acid in China, incidents of poisoning with this chemical are becoming increasingly common, with more than 100 cases reported in the past ten years in China alone.</p> Yiming Tao Xiangdong Jian Copyright (c) 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3401 Cholinergic syndrome: a case report of acute organophosphate and carbamate poisoning https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1266 <p>Cholinergic syndrome is a common topic at western medical universities yet rarely observed in clinical practice. The treatment involves muscarinic antagonists, acetylcholinesterase reactivation, seizure control, and supportive measures. Here we report a case of a 52-year old Caucasian male who attempted suicide by ingesting a purple crystal powder that turned out to be a mixture of carbofuran and chlormephos. At clinical examination, the patient presented with salivation, perspiration, diarrhoea, bradypnoea, loss of consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Laboratory tests showed low plasma cholinesterase, and we started obidoxime along with supportive intensive care treatment. He was later transferred to the psychiatry department for further diagnostics and treatment.</p> Tadej Petreski Barbara Kit Matej Strnad Damjan Grenc Franc Svenšek Copyright (c) 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3413 Has GBL replaced GHB in recreational settings? https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1282 Anastasio Tini Alessandro del Rio Copyright (c) 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 71 2 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3424