Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.7</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 2.1</strong></strong></p> </div> Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health en-US Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 0004-1254 Deciphering the molecular landscape of ionising radiation-induced eye damage with the help of genomic data mining <p>Even at low levels, exposure to ionising radiation can lead to eye damage. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We aimed to address this gap with a comprehensive <em>in silico</em> approach to the issue. For this purpose we relied on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), ToppGene Suite, Cytoscape, GeneMANIA, and Metascape to identify six key regulator genes associated with radiation-induced eye damage (<em>ATM</em>, <em>CRYAB</em>, <em>SIRT1</em>, <em>TGFB1</em>, <em>TREX1</em>, and <em>YAP1</em>), all of which have physical interactions. Some of the identified molecular functions revolve around DNA repair mechanisms, while others are involved in protein binding, enzymatic activities, metabolic processes, and post-translational protein modifications. The biological processes are mostly centred on response to DNA damage, the p53 signalling pathway in particular. We identified a significant role of several miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-183 and hsa-miR-589, in the mechanisms behind ionising radiation-induced eye injuries. Our study offers a valuable method for gaining deeper insights into the adverse effects of radiation exposure.</p> Katarina Baralić Predrag Božović Danijela Đukić-Ćosić Copyright (c) 2024 Katarina Baralić, Predrag Božović, Danijela Đukić-Ćosić 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3817 In silico analysis of the impact of toxic metals on COVID-19 complications: molecular insights <p>COVID-19 can cause a range of complications, including cardiovascular, renal, and/or respiratory insufficiencies, yet little is known of its potential effects in persons exposed to toxic metals. The aim of this study was to answer this question with <em>in silico</em> toxicogenomic methods that can provide molecular insights into COVID-19 complications owed to exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium. For this purpose we relied on the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD), GeneMANIA, and ToppGene Suite portal and identified a set of five common genes (<em>IL1B, CXCL8, IL6, IL10, TNF</em>) for the six metals and COVID-19, all of which code for pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The list was expanded with additional 20 related genes. Physical interactions are the most common between the genes affected by the six metals (77.64&nbsp;%), while the dominant interaction between the genes affected by each metal separately is co-expression (As 56.35&nbsp;%, Cd 64.07&nbsp;%, Pb 71.5&nbsp;%, Hg 81.91&nbsp;%, Ni 64.28&nbsp;%, Cr 88.51&nbsp;%). Biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways in which these 25 genes participate are closely related to cytokines and cytokine storm implicated in the development of COVID-19 complications. In other words, our findings confirm that exposure to toxic metals, alone or in combinations, might escalate COVID-19 severity.</p> Jovana Živanović Katarina Baralić Katarina Živančević Dragica Božić Đurđica Marić Evica Antonijević Miljaković Aleksandra Buha Đorđević Marijana Ćurčić Zorica Bulat Biljana Antonijević Danijela Đukić-Ćosić Copyright (c) 2024 Jovana Živanović, Katarina Baralić, Katarina Živančević, Dragica Božić, Đurđica Marić, Evica Antonijević Miljaković, Aleksandra Buha Đorđević, Marijana Ćurčić, Zorica Bulat, Biljana Antonijević, Danijela Đukić-Ćosić 2024-06-07 2024-06-07 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3819 Sick leaves among healthy pregnant Croatian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic due to loopholes in the occupational safety system <p>The aim of this study was to explore occupational safety in pregnant Croatian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To this end we composed an anonymous questionnaire that included pregnancy data, risk assessment and mitigation, and workplace intervention and distributed it to HCWs through social media of their groups and associations. The study includes a total of 173 respondents (71.1&nbsp;% physicians, 19.7&nbsp;% nurses, 9.2&nbsp;% other HCWs) diagnosed with pregnancy in 2020 and 2021. Employers were notified about HCWs’ pregnancy at the eighth (IQR 7.0–11.0) week of pregnancy, which delayed workplace risk assessment and mitigation beyond the first trimester. Only 19.6&nbsp;% of the participants had the risk assessed and mitigated, mostly on their own initiative (76.5&nbsp;%). After notifying employers about pregnancy, 37.0&nbsp;% of participants opted for temporary work incapacity (TWI) due to “pregnancy complications” despite healthy pregnancy, 16.8&nbsp;% were granted a pregnant worker's paid leave at the expense of the employer, while 5.8&nbsp;% continued to work at the same workplace. Nurses used the TWI benefit more frequently than physicians (58.8&nbsp;% vs 30.1&nbsp;%, P=0.004). Our findings suggest that occupational safety of pregnant HCWs in Croatia lacks clear-cut and transparent strategies to protect pregnant HCWs, forcing them to misuse the healthcare system.</p> Tea Samardžić Roko Žaja Jelena Macan Copyright (c) 2024 Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 2024-06-18 2024-06-18 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3851 Burnout syndrome among preschool teachers in Serbia <p>Pedagogical work, especially with preschool children, is one of the most stressful professions, and the incidence of stress-related illnesses among preschool teachers is higher than in the general population. The aim of this cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2018 and April 2019, was to examine the prevalence of the burnout syndrome in a representative sample of 482 preschool teachers in Serbia and the factors associated with it. For this purpose, the participants completed a questionnaire composed of six sections: the socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health and lifestyle characteristics, workplace and employment characteristics; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). The frequency of the total burnout was 27.1&nbsp;%. The frequency of burnout on the CBI was 25.4&nbsp;% for personal burnout, 27.0&nbsp;% for work-related burnout, and 23.4&nbsp;% for client-related burnout. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with total burnout as an outcome variable showed that being single (OR: 0.18; 95&nbsp;% CI: 0.05–0.58), having poor (OR: 6.05; 95&nbsp;% CI: 1.05–34.91), or average (OR: 3.60; 95&nbsp;% CI: 1.57–8.25) self-rated health, not having didactic/play tools (OR: 2.71; 95&nbsp;% CI: 1.21–6.04), having a higher score on the BDI (OR: 1.19; 95&nbsp;% CI: 1.09–1.29) or SAS (OR: 1.10; 95&nbsp;% CI: 1.03–1.18) was significantly associated with the total burnout among our participants. Our study shows the worryingly high prevalence of the burnout syndrome among preschool teachers in Serbia and points to its association with mental health issues, depression, and anxiety.</p> Pavle Piperac Zorica Terzic-Supic Aleksandra Maksimovic Jovana Todorovic Svetlana Karic Ivan Soldatovic Smiljana Cvjetkovic Vida Jeremic-Stojkovic Simona Petricevic Copyright (c) 2024 Pavle Piperac, Zorica Terzic-Supic, Aleksandra Maksimovic, Jovana Todorovic, Svetlana Karic, Ivan Soldatovic, Smiljana Cvjetkovic, Vida Jeremic-Stojkovic, Simona Petricevic 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3825 The effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on antioxidant capacity and response to oxidative stress in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters 1852) <p>Recent research has raised concern about the biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), as they have been reported to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whilst prolonged exposure to high IONP concentrations may lead to cyto-/genotoxicity. Besides, there is concern about its environmental impact. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of IONPs on the antioxidant defence system in freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (<em>Oreochromis mossambicus,</em> Peters 1852). The fish were exposed to IONP concentration of 15&nbsp;mg/L over 1, 3, 4, 15, 30, and 60 days and the findings compared to a control, unexposed group. In addition, we followed up the fish for 60 days after exposure had stopped to estimate the stability of oxidative stress induced by IONPs. Exposure affected the activity of antioxidant and marker enzymes and increased the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation in the gill, liver, and brain tissues of the fish. Even after 60 days of depuration, adverse effects remained, indicating long-term nanotoxicity. Moreover, IONPs accumulated in the gill, liver, and brain tissues. Our findings underscore the potential health risks posed to non-target organisms in the environment, and it is imperative to establish appropriate guidelines for safe handling and disposal of IONPs to protect the aquatic environment.</p> Puthan Variyam Vidya Goran Gajski Kumari Chidambaran Chitra Copyright (c) 2024 Puthan Variyam Vidya, Goran Gajski, Kumari Chidambaran Chitra 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3826 Aqueous sage leave extract attenuates inflammation and oxidant-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells <p>Traditional medicine has used sage (<em>Salvia officinalis</em> L.) preparations for centuries to prevent and treat various inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced conditions. The aim of this <em>in vitro </em>study was to determine the bioactive properties of a sage leave extract obtained with environmentally friendly aqueous extraction and lyophilisation in primary human peripheral blood cells. To that end we measured the total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC, respectively) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Non-cytotoxic concentrations determined with the trypan blue assay were used to assess the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, and PAB assay), antigenotoxic (CBMN assay), immunomodulatory (IL-1β and TNF-α), and neuroprotective effects (AChE inhibition). The extract contained high TPC (162&nbsp;mg GAE/g of dry extract) and TFC (39.47&nbsp;mg QE/g of dry extract) concentrations, while β-thujone content was unexpectedly low (below 0.9&nbsp;%). Strong radical-scavenging activity combined with glutathione reductase activation led to a decrease in basal and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. A decrease in TNF-α and increase in IL-1β levels suggest complex immunomodulatory response that could contribute to antioxidant and, together with mild AChE inhibition, neuroprotective effects. Overall, this study has demonstrated that aqueous sage leave extract reduces the levels of thujone, 1,8-cineole, pinene, and terpene ketones that could be toxic in high concentrations, while maintaining high concentrations of biologically active protective compounds which have a potential to prevent and/or treat inflammatory and oxidative stress-related conditions.</p> Ana Valenta Šobot Marijana Janić Iva Popović Tamara Lazarević-Pašti Tatjana Momić Aleksandar Krstić Jelena Filipović Tričković Copyright (c) 2024 Jelena Filipović Tričković 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3836 Interplay between mistranslation and oxidative stress in Escherichia coli <p>Mistakes in translation are mostly associated with toxic effects in the cell due to the production of functionally aberrant and misfolded proteins. However, under certain circumstances mistranslation can have beneficial effects and enable cells to preadapt to other stress conditions. Mistranslation may be caused by mistakes made by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, essential enzymes that link amino acids to cognate tRNAs. There is an <em>Escherichia coli</em> strain expressing isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase mutant variant with inactivated editing domain which produces mistranslated proteomes where valine (Val) and norvaline (Nva) are misincorporated into proteins instead of isoleucine. We compared this strain with the wild-type to determine the effects of such mistranslation on bacterial growth in oxidative stress conditions. When the cells were pre-incubated with 0.75&nbsp;mmol/L Nva or 1.5&nbsp;mmol/L Val or Nva and exposed to hydrogen peroxide, no beneficial effect of mistranslation was observed. However, when the editing-deficient strain was cultivated in medium supplemented with 0.75&nbsp;mmol/L Val up to the early or mid-exponential phase of growth and then exposed to oxidative stress, it slightly outgrew the wild-type grown in the same conditions. Our results therefore show a modest adaptive effect of isoleucine mistranslation on bacterial growth in oxidative stress, but only in specific conditions. This points to a delicate balance between deleterious and beneficial effects of mistranslation.</p> Jasmina Rokov Plavec Valentina Evic Copyright (c) 2024 Jasmina Rokov Plavec, Valentina Evic 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3834 Radiocaesium in mosses from the Kopački rit Nature Park in Croatia: searching for undeclared releases from nuclear facilities in war-torn Ukraine <p>The invasion of Ukraine and military operations around Ukrainian nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities have prompted us to search for radiocaesium in mosses from the Kopački Rit Nature Park in Croatia, since mosses are known bioindicators of airborne radioactive pollution, and Kopački Rit is a known low radiocaesium background area. Sampling was finished in August 2023, and our analysis found no elevated radiocaesium levels. Kopački Rit therefore remains a suitable place for future detection of anthropogenic radioactive pollutants.</p> Nora Miljanić Branimir Zauner Dinko Babić Branko Petrinec Copyright (c) 2024 Nora Miljanić, Branimir Zauner, Dinko Babić, Branko Petrinec 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 75 2 10.2478/aiht-2024-75-3853