Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor (2017):<strong> 1.117</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor (2017):<strong><strong> 1.335</strong></strong></p> </div> Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health en-US Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 0004-1254 Non-target toxicity of novel insecticides <p>Humans have used insecticides since ancient times. The spectrum and potency of available insecticidal substances has greatly expanded since the industrial revolution, resulting in widespread use and unforeseen levels of synthetic chemicals in the environment. Concerns about the toxic effects of these new chemicals on non-target species became public soon after their appearance, which eventually led to the restrictions of use. At the same time, new, more environmentally-friendly insecticides have been developed, based on naturally occurring chemicals, such as pyrethroids (derivatives of pyrethrin), neonicotinoids (derivatives of nicotine), and insecticides based on the neem tree vegetable oil (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>), predominantly azadirachtin. Although these new substances are more selective toward pest insects, they can still target other organisms. Neonicotinoids, for example, have been implicated in the decline of the bee population worldwide. This review summarises recent literature published on non-target toxicity of neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, and neem-based insecticidal substances, with a special emphasis on neonicotinoid toxicity in honeybees. We also touch upon the effects of pesticide combinations and documented human exposure to these substances.</p> Vedran Mužinić Davor Želježić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-29 2018-05-29 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3111 Imidacloprid as reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor: investigations in laboratory animals <p>Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used worldwide due to its selective toxicity for insects. Its residues may enter the food chain, which is why it is important to investigate the potential adverse effects of imidacloprid exposure. This review summarises current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity and disruptive endocrine effects of imidacloprid in laboratory animals. Investigations, conducted mostly on laboratory rats, have shown adverse effects of imidacloprid on the reproductive ability in both parental and offspring generation as well as on the development of the offspring. Like many pesticides, imidacloprid may also act as endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). It may disrupt the metabolic homeostasis, contribute to obesity, and disrupt steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities. All these adverse effects of imidacloprid may pose a serious risk for reproduction and development with long-term consequences in adulthood.</p> Anja Mikolić Irena Brčić Karačonji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3144 Oxidative stress in triazine pesticide toxicity: a review of the main biomarker findings <p>This review article provides a summary of the studies relying on oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in particular) to investigate the effects of atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure in experimental animals and humans published since 2010. In general, experimental animals showed that atrazine and terbuthylazine exposure mostly affected their antioxidant defences and, to a lesser extent, lipid peroxidation, but the effects varied by the species, sex, age, herbicide concentration, and duration of exposure. Most of the studies involved aquatic organisms as useful and sensitive bio-indicators of environmental pollution and important part of the food chain. In laboratory mice and rats changes in oxidative stress markers were visible only with exposure to high doses of atrazine. Recently, our group reported that low-dose terbuthylazine could also induce oxidative stress in Wistar rats. It is evident that any experimental assessment of pesticide toxic effects should take into account a combination of several oxidative stress and antioxidant defence biomarkers in various tissues and cell compartments. The identified effects in experimental models should then be complemented and validated by epidemiological studies. This is important if we wish to understand the impact of pesticides on human health and to establish safe limits.</p> Tanja Živković Semren Suzana Žunec Alica Pizent ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3118 Redox imbalance caused by pesticides: a review of OPENTOX-related research <p>Pesticides are a highly diverse group of compounds and the most important chemical stressors in the environment. Mechanisms that could explain pesticide toxicity are constantly being studied and their interactions at the cellular level are often observed in well-controlled <em>in vitro</em> studies. Several pesticide groups have been found to impair the redox balance in the cell, but the mechanisms leading to oxidative stress for certain pesticides are only partly understood. As our scientific project "Organic pollutants in environment – markers and biomarkers of toxicity (OPENTOX)" is dedicated to studying toxic effects of selected insecticides and herbicides, this review is focused on reporting the knowledge regarding oxidative stress-related phenomena at the cellular level. We wanted to single out the most important facts relevant to the evaluation of our own findings from studies conducted on <em>in vitro</em> cell models.</p> Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak Ivan Pavičić Davor Želježić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-21 2018-05-21 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3105 Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk samples in European countries <p>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants, harmful to human health, which enter the human body mainly through food and bind to body fat. For these reasons their use in most countries is prohibited. Human milk has an advantage over other types of human samples in measuring human exposure to PCBs, as it is obtained with non-invasive sampling methods. In Europe, including Croatia, PCB levels have been monitored for many years. This review summarises PCB trends in human milk across Europe. The trend is generally downward, with higher levels prevailing in urban areas near industrial plants. The highest PCB levels were reported in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.</p> Nataša Brajenović Irena Brčić Karačonji Andreja Jurič ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3120 Oxidative stress, cholinesterase activity, and DNA damage in the liver, whole blood, and plasma of Wistar rats following a 28-day exposure to glyphosate <p>In this 28 day-study, we evaluated the effects of herbicide glyphosate administered by gavage to Wistar rats at daily doses equivalent to 0.1 of the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), 0.5 of the consumer acceptable daily intake (ADI), 1.75&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup> bw (corresponding to the chronic population-adjusted dose, cPAD), and 10&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight (bw) (corresponding to 100 times the AOEL). At the end of each treatment, the body and liver weights were measured and compared with their baseline values. DNA damage in leukocytes and liver tissue was estimated with the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated using a battery of endpoints to establish lipid peroxidation via thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) level, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Total cholinesterase activity and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were also measured. The exposed animals gained less weight than control. Treatment resulted in significantly higher primary DNA damage in the liver cells and leukocytes. Glyphosate exposure significantly lowered TBARS in the liver of the AOEL, ADI, and cPAD groups, and in plasma in the AOEL and cPAD group. AChE was inhibited with all treatments, but the AOEL and ADI groups significantly differed from control. Total ChE and plasma/liver ROS/GSH levels did not significantly differ from control, except for the 35&nbsp;% decrease in ChE in the AOEL and ADI groups and a significant drop in liver GSH in the cPAD and 100xAOEL groups. AOEL and ADI blood GSH-Px activity dropped significantly, but in the liver it significantly increased in the ADI, cPAD, and 100xAOEL groups <em>vs.</em> control. All these findings show that even exposure to low glyphosate levels can have serious adverse effects and points to a need to change the approach to risk assessment of low-level chronic/sub-chronic glyphosate exposure, where oxidative stress is not necessarily related to the genetic damage and AChE inhibition.</p> Mirta Milić Suzana Žunec Vedran Micek Vilena Kašuba Anja Mikolić Blanka Tariba Lovaković Tanja Živković Semren Ivan Pavičić Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak Alica Pizent Ana Lucić Vrdoljak Rafael Valencia-Quintana Juana Sánchez-Alarcón Davor Želježić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3114 Dihydroxyacetone as a definitive treatment for aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats <p>Aluminium phosphide (AlP), a very toxic pesticide also known as the <em>rice tablet</em>, releases phosphine gas upon contact with water, moisture, or gastric acid. Its mortality rate in humans is 70-100&nbsp;% due to cardiogenic shock and refractory hypotension. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple ketonic carbohydrate, mainly used for sunless skin tanning. It also plays a beneficial role in the treatment of hypotension and cardiogenic shock by restoring blood volume and cellular respiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the its effect on the haemodynamics and electrocardiogram (ECG) in male rats poisoned with AlP. The animals were divided into the following groups: control (received 1&nbsp;mL corn oil, orally), AlP (received 15&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup> AlP solved in corn oil, orally), AlP plus DHA (treated with 50&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup> of DHA 30&nbsp;min after receiving AlP), and AlP plus <em>N</em>-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (treated with 200&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup> of NAC 30&nbsp;min after receiving AlP). The animals were then anaesthetised and ECG, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded for 120&nbsp;min. Treatment with AlP alone and in combination with NAC was associated with progressive hypotension, tachycardia, and ECG disturbances in rats, resulting in 100&nbsp;% mortality 3&nbsp;h after poisoning. However, DHA achieved 100&nbsp;% survival in the poisoned rats and prevented AlP-induced ECG and haemodynamic abnormalities. The main mechanism of DHA in the treatment of AlP poisoning is unclear, but the findings suggest the promising therapeutic potential of DHA against AlP poisoning.</p> Jafar Ahmadi Sivavash Joukar Hussein Anani Somayyeh Karami-Mohajeri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-15 2018-05-15 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3106 Clinical and analytical experience of the National Poison Control Centre with synthetic cannabinoids <p>A rising number of patients are being treated for overdosing with new psychoactive substances (NPS) available at the illegal drug market in Serbia. The aim of this study was to report clinical and analytical experience of the National Poison Control Centre of Serbia (NPCC) with synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) and point to the NPS available at the illegal drug market in our country. From January 2013 to December 2016, 58 patients (aged between 14 and 25) were treated for the effects of synthetic cannabinoids at the NPCC. Tachycardia was established in 53, mydriasis in 31, somnolence, nausea, vomiting, and agitation in 16, dizziness in 10, disorientation in 9, dyspnoea and chest pain in 4, and loss of consciousness, pallor, paraesthesia, muscle twitches, and short-term memory impairment in 2 patients. After receiving symptomatic and supportive treatment in the emergency ward, all patients had fully recovered within 8&nbsp;h and were discharged shortly afterwards. Another part of the study was focused on the analysis of the products known under their local street names as "Biljni tamjan" (herbal incense), "Beli slez", and "Rainbow Special" and the analysis of urine sampled from the patients with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The detected synthetic cannabinoids were AB-PINACA, JWH-018, JWH-122, JWH-210, 5F-AKB48, and MDMB-CHMICA in herbal products and AB-FUBINACA, AB-CHMINACA, and MDMB-CHMICA in the urine samples. Our findings have shown the great capacity of NPCC to I) monitor NPS abuse in Serbia, II) reliably detect SCs in illicit products and biological samples, and III) clinically manage the adverse effects in their users. Future commitments of the NPCC will include systematic collection of relevant data on SCs and their adverse effects, detection of changes in purity and composition of the controlled NPS-based products, and raising the public awareness of NPS to improve the effectiveness of the national Early Warning System.</p> Slavica Vučinić Marijana Ćurčić Biljana Antonijević Evica Antonijevic Vesna Kilibarda Snežana Đorđević Dragana Đorđević Nataša Perković-Vukčević Gordana Vuković-Ercegović Gordana Brajković ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3096 A case of synthetic cannabinoid poisoning in Croatia <p>The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street. He presented with severe cognitive difficulties and visible eye redness. Other symptoms included somnolence, disorientation, loss of coordination, unsteady gait, hyporeflexia, stiffness, cramps and cold limbs, blurred vision, teeth grinding, dry mouth, tinnitus, fear, suicidal thoughts, impaired focus, memory, and speech, sedation, fatigue, depression, thought blocking, and autistic behaviour. His skin was dry, and his mucosa dry and irritated. Herbal products "Rainbow Special" and "Luminated Aroma" used by the patient were qualitatively analysed with gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after direct extraction with an organic solvent. Solid-phase extraction method was used to analyse serum and urine samples. Despite the negative findings of biological samples, mostly due to the limitations of GC/MS, the clinical picture infallibly pointed to the poisoning with SCs. This was confirmed by the findings of 5-fluoro AMB (methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate) in the herbal products.</p> Davorka Sutlović Ingrid Prkačin Zora Jurin Fabio Vaiano Elisabetta Bertol Maja Veršić Bratinčević Marija Definis-Gojanović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-25 2018-05-25 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3100 New insights into the organophosphate-induced intermediate syndrome <p>Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can be deadlier than any other type of chemical poisoning. So far, only a few cases have been described that include extensive neurological complications. We present an outstanding case of severe oral OP poisoning with intermediate syndrome developed on the fourth day after hospital admission. The clinical picture involved weakness of the proximal upper and lower limb muscles and several muscles supplied by motor cranial nerves, but, what is peculiar, the distal upper and lower limb muscles were also affected (forearms, hands, legs, and feet). To our knowledge, this is a unique presentation, as lower limb muscle weakness was reported only in the context of delayed polyneuropathy. Another remarkable feature was the involvement of six of the twelve cranial nerves, which makes this case of intermediate syndrome the first with such a spread of muscle weakness and provides new insights into the polymorphic clinical manifestations of acute OP poisoning.</p> Raluca Ecaterina Haliga Bianca Codrina Morarasu Manuela Ursaru Viorica Irimioaia Laurentiu Sorodoc ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 69 2 10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3121