Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health en-US Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 0004-1254 Oxidative stress under general intravenous and inhalation anaesthesia https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1291 <p>Oxidative stress occurs when reactive oxygen species (ROS) production overwhelms cell protection by antioxidants. This review is focused on general anaesthesia-induced oxidative stress because it increases the rate of complications and delays recovery after surgery. It is important to know what effects of anaesthetics to expect in terms of oxidative stress, particularly in surgical procedures with high ROS production, because their either additive or antagonistic effect may be pivotal for the outcome of surgery. <em>In vitro</em> and animal studies on this topic are numerous but show large variability. There are not many human studies and what we know has been learned from different surgical procedures measuring different endpoints in blood samples taken mostly before and after surgery. In these studies most intravenous anaesthetics have antioxidative properties, while volatile anaesthetics temporarily increase oxidative stress in longer surgical procedures.</p> Sandra Alavuk Kundović Dubravka Rašić Ljiljana Popović Maja Peraica Ksenija Črnjar Copyright (c) 2020 Maja Peraica, Sandra Alavuk Kundović, Dubravka Rašić, Ljiljana Popović, Ksenija Črnjar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3437 How improvements in monitoring and safety practices lowered airborne formaldehyde concentrations at an Italian university hospital: a summary of 20 years of experience https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1255 <p>The last two decades have been crucial for the assessment of airborne formaldehyde (FA) exposure in healthcare environments due to changes in limits and reference values, definition of carcinogenicity, and new monitoring methods. The aim of this study was to analyse twenty years (1999–2019) of experience in automatic, continuous airborne FA monitoring in the Pathology Laboratory and operating rooms at the Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. These 20 years saw gradual improvements in FA monitoring of exposed employees considered at maximum risk, including improvements in analytical methods of detection and sampling strategies, which came with changes in procedures and workflow operations. In 2019, after the adoption of safe practices, including a closed-circuit system using pre-loaded containers and a vacuum sealing, 94&nbsp;% of the total measurements (FA concentrations) were lower than 16&nbsp;µg/L, and only 6&nbsp;% ranged from 21 to 75&nbsp;µg/L. In the studied work units, the ratio between area and personal readings ranged from 0.9 to 1.0, both for long and short-term sampling. Personal sampling was simplified with a new workstation, which integrated different monitoring systems into an innovative ergonomic armchair equipped with personal sampling devices. Area monitoring was also improved with a real-time, continuous photoacoustic instrument. Over these 20 years, FA exposure significantly dropped, which coincided with optimised histology workflow and implementation of safety practices. For high-throughput screening and cost savings we propose an innovative ergonomic armchair station which allows remote continuous monitoring.</p> Stefano Dugheri Daniela Massi Nicola Mucci Nicola Berti Giovanni Cappelli Giulio Arcangeli Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Dugheri, Daniela Massi, Nicola Mucci, Nicola Berti, Giovanni Cappelli, Giulio Arcangeli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3406 Comparison of beautician and hairdressing apprentices with regard to skin health and skin barrier function https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1307 <p>Hairdressing and beautician apprentices are at high risk of occupational skin diseases. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of skin symptoms and the condition of skin barrier between them at the end of vocational training. We recruited 101 hairdressing and 76 beautician apprentices (overall median age 17 years), who reported their history of skin symptoms through the Croatian translation of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) and had their hand skin clinically examined and evaluated with the Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured following the standard procedure. Hairdressing apprentices reported significantly higher prevalence of hand/wrist eczema or urticaria than beautician apprentices (35&nbsp;% vs 25&nbsp;%, respectively; P=0.041) and higher severity of current hand eczema [median (range) 1.5 (0–8) vs 0.5 (0–4), respectively; P&lt;0.001] and had higher hand TEWL values in those who washed their hands &gt;20 times a day [median (interquartile range): 24.4 (19.7–33.7) vs 18.8 (15.4–23.2)&nbsp;g/m<sup>2</sup>/h, respectively; P&lt;0.001). Hairdressing apprentices had more severe clinical symptoms on the hands, and 83&nbsp;% of those who reported eczema also reported that exacerbation occurred during practical training in comparison to 38&nbsp;% of beautician apprentices. Our study is the first to report occupational hand and forearm skin issues in the beautician apprentices and also suggests that more effort is needed to improve training about safety at work, which should be specifically tailored for these two trades.</p> Željka Babić Tea Samardžić Jelena Macan Copyright (c) 2020 Željka Babić, Tea Samardžić, Jelena Macan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3452 Redox and essential metal status in the brain of Wistar rats acutely exposed to a cadmium and lead mixture https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1283 <p>Most Pb and Cd neurotoxicity studies investigate exposure to either of the heavy metals alone, while data on co-exposure are scarce. The aim of our study was to fill that gap by investigating acute combined effects of Pb and Cd on redox and essential metal status in the brain of Wistar rat. Animals were randomised in four groups of six to eight rats, which received 15 or 30&nbsp;mg/kg of Cd<a href="http://b.w.Cd">, </a>150&nbsp;mg/kg of Pb, or 150&nbsp;mg/kg of Pb + 15&nbsp;mg/kg of Cd by gavage. The fifth, control, group received distilled water only. Co-treatment with Pb and Cd induced significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to control and groups receiving either metal alone. This is of special importance, as MDA presence in the brain has been implicated in many neurodegenerative disorders. The groups did not significantly differ in Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe brain levels. Our findings highlight the importance of metal mixture studies. Neurotoxicity assessments of single chemicals do not provide a real insight into exposure to mixtures in real life. Further research should look into interactions between these metals to reveal complex molecular mechanisms of their neurotoxicity.</p> Dragana Javorac Aleksandra Buha Đorđević Milena Anđelković Simona Tatović Katarina Baralić Evica Antonijević Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević Danijela Đukić-Ćosić Biljana Antonijević Zorica Bulat Copyright (c) 2020 Dragana Javorac, Aleksandra Buha Đorđević, Milena Anđelković, Simona Tatović, Katarina Baralić, Evica Antonijević, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Danijela Đukić-Ćosić, Biljana Antonijević, Zorica Bulat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3425 Microtubular structure impairment after GSM-modulated RF radiation exposure https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1100 <p>The objective of the study was to investigate whether low-level 915&nbsp;MHz GSM-modulated radiofrequency (RF) radiation impairs microtubular structure and affects normal cell growth. V79 cells were exposed to a GSM-modulated field in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM cell) for 1, 2, and 3&nbsp;h. Signal generator combined with power and chip modulator generated the electromagnetic field (EMF). The electric field strength was adjusted to 10, 20, and 30&nbsp;V/m, and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.23, 0.8, and 1.6&nbsp;W/kg. The structure of microtubule proteins was assessed by indirect immunocytochemistry, and cell growth was determined based on cell counts taken every day over six post-exposure days. Three-hour radiation exposure significantly altered microtubule structure regardless of the electric field strength. Moreover, on the third post-exposure day, three-hour radiation significantly reduced cell growth, regardless of field strength. The same was observed with two-hour exposure at 20 and 30&nbsp;V/m. In conclusion, 915&nbsp;MHz GSM-modulated RF radiation affects microtubular proteins in a time-dependent manner, which, in turn, affects cell proliferation. Our future research will focus on microtubule structure throughout the cell cycle and RF radiation effects on mitotic spindle.</p> Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak Krunoslav Ilić Ivan Pavičić Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Krunoslav Ilić, Ivan Pavičić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3267 Oxidative and apoptotic effects of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine in Daphnia magna https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1328 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative and apoptotic potential of fluoxetine, a widely used antidepressant in Turkey and the world, and of its metabolite norfluoxetine on a model non-target organism, <em>Daphnia magna</em> to see how exposure to this group of antidepressants (specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors) could affect the aquatic environment in which they end up. Juvenile <em>D. magna</em> specimens were chronically exposed to fluoxetine and norfluoxetine alone and in combination at concentrations found in the aquatic environment (0.091 and 0.011&nbsp;µg/L, respectively) and to their 10-fold environmental concentrations for 21 days. Another group of 17-day-old animals were subacutely exposed to 100-fold environmental concentrations for four days. After exposure, we measured their glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total protein content spectrophotometrically, while mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analysed by fluorescence staining, and cytochrome&nbsp;c and ERK1/2 protein content by Western blotting. This is the first-time cytochrome&nbsp;c and ERK1/2 were determined at the protein level in <em>D. magna</em>. We also measured their carapace length, width, and caudal spine length microscopically. At environmental concentrations fluoxetine and norfluoxetine caused an increase in ChE activity and brood production. They also caused a decrease in juvenile carapace length, width, and caudal spine length and depolarised the mitochondrial membrane. At 10-fold environmental concentrations, GPx activity, lipid peroxidation levels, cytochrome&nbsp;c, and ERK1/2 protein levels rose. The most pronounced effect was observed in <em>D. magna</em> exposed to norfluoxetine. Norfluoxetine also decreased brood production. Similar effects were observed with subacute exposure to 100-fold environmental concentrations. However, total protein content decreased. All this confirms that fluoxetine and norfluoxetine have oxidative and apoptotic potential in <em>D. magna</em>. <em>Daphnia spp.</em> have a great potential to give us precious insight into the mechanisms of environmental toxicants, but there is still a long way to go before they are clarified in these organisms.</p> Sevgi Başalan Över Celal Guven Eylem Taskin Yusuf Sevgiler Copyright (c) 2020 Sevgi Başalan Över, Celal Guven, Eylem Taskin, Yusuf Sevgiler https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3473 Juniper and immortelle essential oils synergistically inhibit adhesion of nontuberculous mycobacteria to Acanthamoeba castellanii https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1297 <p><em>Acanthamoeba</em> is an opportunistic protozoon, widespread in the aquatic environment, where it can be in endosymbiosis with over 30 pathogenic bacteria, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Protozoa play a crucial role in mycobacterial pathogenesis and serve as a reservoir of infection. Since the first step in bacteria making contact with amoebae is adhesion, we were interested in investigating whether essential oils (EOs) can affect it. To that end we investigated the effects of juniper (<em>Juniperus communis</em>) and immortelle (<em>Helichrysum italicum</em>) EOs against <em>Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare</em>, and<em> M. gordonae</em> in tap water and against their adhesion to <em>Acanthamoeba castellanii</em> by combining them in synergistic EO concentrations. <em>M. avium</em> and <em>M. intracellulare</em> adhered to <em>A. castellanii</em> to a greater extent than <em>M. gordonae</em>. The adhesion of all NTMs was prevented by the subinhibitory concentrations of EOs. When comparing the effect of synergistic combinations of EOs and the effect of a single concentration from a combination, a higher percentage of adhesion inhibition in all synergistic combinations observed, except against <em>M. gordonae</em>. Neither oil was cytotoxic to <em>A. castellanii</em>. Our findings suggest that the EOs or their components weaken the contact of environmental NTMs and free-living amoebae and indirectly diminish their pathogenic potential, which could be of value in developing strategies for maintenance of water supply systems.</p> Dolores Peruč Brigita Tićac Dalibor Broznić Ivana Gobin Copyright (c) 2020 Dolores Peruč, Brigita Tićac, Dalibor Broznić, Ivana Gobin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3442 Phenotypic and genetic properties of susceptible and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Southern Serbia https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1274 <p>Drug resistance of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> is a leading problem in hospital infections. The aim of this study was to determine the best molecular genetic discrimination method for <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. isolates among 94 outpatients and inpatients and see their grouping by phenotype characteristics (biofilm formation, frequency of serotypes, pigmentation, production of different class of beta-lactamases, and susceptibility to different antibiotic classes) and genotype. The most common serotypes were P1, P6, and P11, while co-productions of pyoverdine and pyocyanin were observed in 70&nbsp;% of isolates. A total of 77.66&nbsp;% isolates were mostly weak and moderate biofilm producers. Isolates were susceptible to colistin (100&nbsp;%), aztreonam (97.87&nbsp;%), imipenem (91.49&nbsp;%), doripenem (90.43&nbsp;%), and meropenem (84.04&nbsp;%). MICs values confirmed susceptibility to ceftazidime and cefepime and singled out meripenem as the most effective inhibitor. Most isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Only two isolates produced ESBL, eight were carbapenemase producers, and five isolates produced MBLs. Twenty-nine isolates were multidrug-resistant; 82.8&nbsp;% of which produced both pigments, 58.3&nbsp;% were non-typeable, while the P6 and P11 serotypes were equally distributed (16.7&nbsp;%). Thirteen MDR isolates were strong enzyme producers. RAPD PCR analysis using primer 272 proved the best at discriminatory fingerprinting for <em>Pseudomonas</em> isolates, as it allocated 12 clusters. A correlation between DNA patterns and antibiotic resistance, production of pigments, serotypes distribution, and biofilm formation was not observed, and only confirmed higher genetic heterogeneity among <em>P. aeruginosa</em> isolates, which suggests that other molecular methods are needed to reveal potential relations between genotypic patterns and phenotypic characteristics.</p> Marko Milojković Željka Nenadović Slaviša Stanković Dragana D. Božić Nataša Stanković Nedeljković Ivana Ćirković Ivica Dimkić Copyright (c) 2020 Marko Milojković, Željka Nenadović, Slaviša Stanković, Dragana D. Božić, Nataša Stanković Nedeljković, Ivana Ćirković, Ivica Dimkić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3418 Capillary bacterial migration on non-nutritive solid surfaces https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1287 <p>Here we describe an additional type of bacterial migration in which bacterial cells migrate vertically across a non-nutritive solid surface carried by capillary forces. Unlike standard motility experiments, these were run on a glass slide inserted into a Falcon tube, partly immersed in a nutrient medium and partly exposed to air. Observations revealed that capillary forces initiated upward cell migration when biofilm was formed at the border between liquid and air. The movement was facilitated by the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This motility differs from earlier described swarming, twitching, gliding, sliding, or surfing, although these types of movements are not excluded. We therefore propose to call it "capillary movement of biofilm". This phenomenon may be an ecologically important mode of bacterial motility on solid surfaces.</p> Tomislav Ivanković Uzi Hadad Ariel Kushmaro Svjetlana Dekic Josipa Cevid Marko Percela Jasna Hrenovic Copyright (c) 2020 Tomislav Ivanković, Uzi Haddad, Ariel Kushmaro, Svjetlana Dekic, Josipa Cevid, Marko Percela, Jasna Hrenovic https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3436 Toxicological aspects of increased use of surface and hand disinfectants in Croatia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a preliminary report https://arhiv.imi.hr/index.php/arhiv/article/view/1337 <p>All COVID-19 prevention strategies include regular use of surface disinfectants and hand sanitisers. As these measures took hold in Croatia, the Croatian Poison Control Centre started receiving phone calls from the general public and healthcare workers, which prompted us to investigate whether the risk of suspected/symptomatic poisonings with disinfectants and sanitisers really increased. To that end we compared their frequency and characteristics in the first half of 2019 and 2020. Cases of exposures to disinfectants doubled in the first half of 2020 (41 vs 21 cases in 2019), and exposure to sanitisers increased about nine times (46 vs 5 cases in 2019). In 2020, the most common ingredients of disinfectants and sanitisers involved in poisoning incidents were hypochlorite/glutaraldehyde, and ethanol/isopropyl alcohol, respectively. Exposures to disinfectants were recorded mostly in adults (56&nbsp;%) as accidental (78&nbsp;%) through ingestion or inhalation (86&nbsp;%). Fortunately, most callers were asymptomatic (people called for advice because they were concerned), but nearly half reported mild (gastrointestinal or respiratory irritation), and in one case severe symptoms were reported (gastrointestinal corrosive injury). Reports of exposure to hand sanitisers highlighted preschool children as the most vulnerable group. Accidental exposure through ingestion dominated, but, again, only mild symptoms (gastrointestinal or eye irritation) developed in one third of the cases. These preliminary findings, however limited, confirm that increased availability and use of disinfectants and sanitisers significantly increased the risk of poisoning, particularly in preschool children through accidental ingestion of hand sanitisers. We therefore believe that epidemiological recommendations for COVID-19 prevention should include warnings informing the general public of the risks of poisoning with surface and hand disinfectants in particular.</p> Željka Babić Rajka Turk Jelena Macan Copyright (c) 2020 Željka Babić, Rajka Turk, Jelena Macan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 71 3 10.2478/aiht-2020-71-3470