Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 2.078</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 2.804</strong></strong></p> </div> Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health en-US Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 0004-1254 Influence of number of visitors and weather conditions on airborne particulate matter mass concentrations at the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia during summer and autumn <p>We investigated the influence of local meteorological conditions and number of visitors on ambient particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations and particle fraction ratios at the Plitvice Lakes National Park between July and October 2018. Outdoor mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters of less than 1, 2.5, and 10&nbsp;µm (PM<sub>1</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and PM<sub>10</sub>, respectively) and indoor PM<sub>1</sub> were measured with two light-scattering laser photometers set up near the largest and most visited Kozjak Lake. Our findings suggest that the particles mainly originated from background sources, although some came from local anthropogenic activities. More specifically, increases in both indoor and outdoor mass concentrations coincided with the increase in the number of visitors. Indoor PM<sub>1</sub> concentrations also increased with increase in outdoor air temperature, while outdoor PMs exhibited U-shaped dependence (i.e., concentrations increased only at higher outdoor air temperatures). This behaviour and the decrease in the PM<sub>1</sub>/PM<sub>2.5</sub> ratio with higher temperatures suggests that the production and growth of particles is influenced by photochemical reactions. The obtained spectra also pointed to a daily but not to weekly periodicity of PM levels.</p> Zvjezdana B. Klaić Manuel A. Leiva Guzmán Andrijana Brozinčević Copyright (c) 2022 Zvjezdana B. Klaić, Manuel A. Leiva Guzmán, Andrijana Brozinčević 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3610 Radiological impact of an active quarry in the Papuk Nature Park, Croatia <p>Papuk Nature Park, unlike most similar parks and preserves in the world, contains active quarries. Quarries dig stone from the ground, creating dust and exposing deeper, potentially more radioactive layers. Since the forest trails in the Park lead right up to the quarries, we believed it was important to determine the radiological impact of the quarries on the Park environment. We measured ambient dose rate equivalent <em>Ḣ*</em>(10) and sampled moss at 26 Park locations along two of four quarries, along the road between them, and near Lake Orahovac, a very popular tourist destination close to the quarries. Moss is a standard bioindicator of exposure to heavy metals, including radionuclides. Using-gamma ray spectrometry we determined the activity concentration of <sup>137</sup>Cs and of representative naturally occurring radionuclides – <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>210</sup>Pb, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K – in sampled moss. <em>Ḣ*</em>(10) at selected locations was similar to the background <em>Ḣ*</em>(10) measured continuously all over Croatia. The ranges of measured activity concentrations of <sup>137</sup>Cs and naturally occurring radionuclides in moss did not differ significantly from other parts of Croatia and nearby countries.</p> Branko Petrinec Davor Rašeta Dinko Babić Copyright (c) 2022 Branko Petrinec, Davor Rašeta, Dinko Babić 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3616 Telomere fragility in radiology workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionising radiation <p>Ionising radiation damages DNA directly and indirectly through increased production of reactive oxygen species. Although telomeres have been reported as indicators of radiosensitivity, their maintenance in response to occupational exposure to low radiation doses is still a matter of debate. In this work we aimed to investigate telomere length and structure in hospital workers occupationally exposed to X-rays and to relate these findings to oxidation of biomolecules and chromosome aberrations. Blood samples of exposed participants and matching controls were taken during periodical check-ups. Chromosome aberrations and telomere length and structure were analysed in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Q-FISH, whereas oxidative stress parameters [pro/antioxidant balance (PAB), lipid peroxidation, and 8-oxo-dG] were measured in plasma samples. Based on the CA findings we divided the exposed group into two subgroups, of which one had chromosome aberrations in the first division metaphases and the other did not. There was no significant difference in telomere length between any of the groups. However, both subgroups showed significantly higher rate of fragile telomeres and higher lipid peroxidation product and 8-oxo-dG levels than controls. The rate of fragile telomeres significantly correlated with plasma levels of 8-oxo-dG, which suggests that continuous exposure to low radiation doses induces oxidative base damage of guanine resulting in telomere fragility.</p> Jelena Filipović Tričković Ana Valenta Šobot Ivana Joksić Gordana Aleksandar Joksić Copyright (c) 2022 Jelena Filipović Tričković, Ana Valenta Šobot, Ivana Joksić, Gordana Aleksandar Joksić 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3609 Toxicopathological changes induced by combined exposure to noise and toluene in New Zealand White rabbits <p>Noise and toluene can have significant adverse effects on different systems in the human body, but little is known about their combination. The aim of this study was to see how their combined action reflects on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), body weight, and pathological changes in the heart, lung, stomach, and spleen tissues. To do that we exposed New Zealand rabbits to 1000&nbsp;mg/L toluene and 100&nbsp;dB of white noise in a chamber specifically designed for the purpose over two consecutive weeks. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in tissues were determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Noise and toluene changed TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels on different days following the end of exposure and significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the lung and spleen. In addition, they induced different pathological changes in the heart, lung, spleen, and stomach tissues. This study has confirmed that exposure to noise and toluene can induce a range of toxicopathological changes, probably by inducing inflammatory pathways and apoptosis, but their combined effects look weaker than those of its components, although histopathological findings suggest the opposite.</p> Amirreza Abouee-Mehrizi Yahya Rasoulzadeh Tohid Kazemi Ahmad Mehdipour Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 Amirreza Abouee-Mehrizi, Yahya Rasoulzadeh, Tohid Kazemi, Ahmad Mehdipour, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3602 Ochratoxin A potentiates citrinin accumulation in kidney and liver of rats <p>Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins often found together in grain. The aim of this study was to measure their accumulation in the kidney and liver of adult male Wistar rats, see how it would be affected by combined treatment, and to determine if resveratrol (RSV) would decrease their levels in these organs. The rats received 125 or 250&nbsp;mg/kg bw of OTA by gavage every day for 21 days and/or 20&nbsp;mg/kg bw of CTN a day for two days. Two groups of rats treated with OTA+CTN were also receiving 20&nbsp;mg/kg bw of RSV a day for 21 days. In animals receiving OTA alone, its accumulation in both organs was dose-dependent. OTA+CTN treatment resulted in lower OTA but higher CTN accumulation in both organs at both OTA doses. RSV treatment increased OTA levels in the kidney and liver and decreased CTN levels in the kidney. Our findings point to the competition between CTN and OTA for organic anion transporters 1 and 3.</p> Dubravka Rašić Srđan Stefanović Dragan Milićević Marin Mladinić Davor Želježić Alica Pizent Paško Konjevoda Maja Peraica Copyright (c) 2022 Dubravka Rašić, Srđan Stefanović, Dragan Milićević, Marin Mladinić, Davor Želježić, Alica Pizent, Paško Konjevoda, Maja Peraica 2022-02-22 2022-02-22 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3605 Light and heavy ferritin chain expression in the liver and kidneys of Wistar rats: aging, sex differences, and impact of gonadectomy <p>Ferritin is the main intracellular storage of iron. Animal studies show that female liver and kidney express more ferritin and accumulate more iron than male. However, no study so far has investigated sex and age differences in light (FtL) and heavy (FtH) ferritin chain expression. To address this, we relied on specific&nbsp; antibodies and immunochemical methods to analyse the expression of both ferritin chains in the liver and kidney of 3-month and 2-year-old male and female Wistar rats. To see how sex hormones may affect expression we also studied adult animals gonadectomised at the age of 10 weeks. FtL and FtH were more expressed in both organs of female rats, while gonadectomy increased the expression in males and&nbsp; decreased it in females, which suggests that it is stimulated by female and inhibited by male steroid hormones. Normal kidney ferritin distribution and change with aging warrant more attention in studies of (patho)physiological and toxicological processes.&nbsp;</p> Mirela Pavić Petra Turčić Vedran Micek Marija Ljubojević Copyright (c) 2022 Mirela Pavić, Petra Turčić, Vedran Micek, Marija Ljubojević 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3621 Kidney cell DNA damage caused by combined exposure to volatile anaesthetics and 1 Gy or 2 Gy radiotherapy dose in vivo <p>Patient immobilisation with volatile anaesthetics (VA) during radiotherapy is sometimes unavoidable. Although it is known that both VAs and ionising radiation can have nephrotoxic effects, there are no studies of their combined effects on DNA damage. The aim of this <em>in vivo</em> study was to address this gap by investigating whether 48 groups of healthy Swiss albino mice (totalling 240) would differ in kidney cell DNA damage response (alkaline comet assay) to isoflurane, sevoflurane, or halothane anaesthesia and exposure to 1&nbsp;Gy or 2&nbsp;Gy of ionising radiation. We took kidney cortex samples after 0, 2, 6, and 24&nbsp;h of exposure and measured comet parameters: tail length and tail intensity. To quantify the efficiency of the cells to repair and re-join DNA strand breaks, we also calculated cellular DNA repair index. Exposure to either VA alone increased DNA damage, which was similar between sevoflurane and isoflurane, and the highest with halothane. In combined exposure (VA and irradiation with 1&nbsp;Gy) DNA damage remained at similar levels for all time points or was even lower than damage caused by radiation alone. Halothane again demonstrated the highest damage. In combined exposure with irradiation of 2&nbsp;Gy sevoflurane significantly elevated tail intensity over the first three time points, which decreased and was even lower on hour 24 than in samples exposed to the corresponding radiation dose alone. This study confirmed that volatile anaesthetics are capable of damaging DNA, while combined VA and 1&nbsp;Gy or 2&nbsp;Gy treatment did not have a synergistic damaging effect on DNA. Further studies on the mechanisms of action are needed to determine the extent of damage in kidney cells after longer periods of observation and how efficiently the cells can recover from exposure to single and multiple doses of volatile anaesthetics and radiotherapy.</p> Vesna Benković Nada Oršolić Anica Horvat Knežević Nikola Borojević Gordana Brozović Mirta Milić Copyright (c) 2022 Vesna Benković, Nada Oršolić, Anica Horvat Knežević, Nikola Borojević, Gordana Brozović, Mirta Milić 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3600 Effects of naringin and valproate interaction on liver steatosis and dyslipidaemia parameters in male C57BL/6 mice <p>Valproate is a common antiepileptic drug whose adverse effects include liver steatosis and dyslipidaemia. The aim of our study was to see how natural flavonoid antioxidant naringin would interact with valproate and attenuate these adverse effects. For this reason we treated male C57BL/6 mice with a combination of 150 mg/kg of valproate and 25 mg/kg naringin every day for 10 days and compared their serum triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, and liver PPAR-alpha, PGC-1 alpha, ACOX1, Nrf2, SOD, CAT, GSH, and histological signs of steatosis. Valproate increased lipid peroxidation parameters and caused pronounced microvesicular steatosis throughout the hepatic lobule in all acinar zones, but naringin co-administration limited steatosis to the lobule periphery. In addition, it nearly restored total serum cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and liver ACOX1 and MDA to control levels. and upregulated PPAR-alpha and PGC-1 alpha, otherwise severely downregulated by valproate. It also increased SOD activity. All these findings suggest that naringin modulates key lipid metabolism regulators and should further be investigated in this model, either alone or combined with other lipid regulating drugs or molecules.</p> David Jutrić Domagoj Đikić Almoš Boroš Dyna Odeh Sandra Domjanić Drozdek Romana Gračan Petar Dragičević Irena Crnić Irena Landeka Jurčević Copyright (c) 2022 Domagoj Đikić 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3608 In vitro antifungal effect of phenylboronic and boric acid on Alternaria alternata <p>The ascomycete fungus <em>Alternaria alternata </em>causes early blight, one of economically the most important tomato diseases. Due to frequent use of fungicides, <em>A. alternata</em> has developed resistance with negative economic and environmental consequences. Research of new ways to control fungal pathogens has turned its eye to environmentally friendly chemicals with low toxicity such as boronic acids. The aim of our study was therefore to test the antifungal effects of phenylboronic and boric acid <em>in vitro</em> on <em>A</em>. <em>alternata</em>. We isolated the pathogen from a symptomatic tomato plant and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration of phenylboronic and boric acid on <em>A. alternata</em> mycelial growth using the poisoned food technique. The antifungal effect was tested on a wide range of phenylboronic and boric acid concentrations (from 0.04&nbsp;% to 0.3&nbsp;%) applied separately to agar with mycelial disc of the pathogen. After five days of incubation, phenylboronic acid at low concentration (0.05&nbsp;%) completely inhibited mycelial growth. Boric acid, in turn, did not significantly slow down mycelial growth but did reduce sporulation and confirmed its fungistatic effect. Our findings point to the potential use of phenylboronic acid to control phytopathogenic fungi. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on its antifungal effect on an agriculturally important pathogen <em>in vitro</em>. Moreover, since <em>A. alternata</em> is also a human pathogen, these results may have clinical ramifications.</p> Katarina Martinko Siniša Ivanković Edyta Đermić Damir Đermić Copyright (c) 2022 Katarina Martinko, Siniša Ivanković, Edyta Đermić, Damir Đermić 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 73 1 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3620