Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 2019-12-30T09:35:28+01:00 Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju Open Journal Systems <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in airborne particulate matter 2019-12-09T11:31:00+01:00 Jasmina Rinkovec <p>Measurable quantities of platinum, palladium, and rhodium, even in remote areas of the planet, evidence the global nature of pollution with these metals, mostly from catalytic converters of modern vehicles (other sources are jewellery production, chemical industry, and anticancer drugs). The amount of the platinum group metals (PGMs) emitted from automobile catalysts varies with the type, age, and condition of the engine and the catalyst, as well as the style of driving. Current literature suggests that the concentrations of these metals have increased considerably over the last twenty years, palladium concentrations in particular, as it has been proved more effective catalyst than platinum. However, whether and to what extent the emitted PGMs are toxic for people is still a controversy. The potential health risk from exposure to these elements is most likely for those living in urban environments with busy roads or along major highways. Because of the importance of PGMs and their trace levels in particulate matter, sensitive methods are required for reliable determination. This review discusses particular steps of analytical procedures for PGM quantification in airborne particulate matter and addresses the common preparation, detection, and determination methods.</p> 2019-11-18T10:33:20+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jasmina Rinkovec Food defence systems as an answer to food terrorism 2019-12-30T09:35:28+01:00 Karlo Jurica Josip Vrdoljak Irena Brčić Karačonji <p>Terrorist attacks on critical infrastructures can cause problems to a national stability and functioning. Food and water supply chains are some of the most important infrastructures, and it is the country’s (government’s) obligation to provide sufficient quantities of food and water to its population. Intentional food contamination can, among other motives, originate from an act of terrorism (with political or ideological motives) with the aim of causing fear (terror) among people. Food defence systems can help assess vulnerabilities, determine mitigation strategies for terrorist attack, estimate risks, and prevent a terrorist attack. Risk assessment and prevention also include control over the production and distribution of potential chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) agents or their related materials. When a terrorist attack occurs, rapid and organized response is essential in terms of determining the type of agent used, managing the diseased, ensuring the functioning of the food and water supply, and the recovery of the infrastructure system under attack. Food defence planning as part of a food counterterrorism strategy should include considerations regarding the global food market and the fact that ingredients are supplied from all over the world (vendor certificates). Preventing terrorist attacks on sources of food and water is a far better option than crisis management once an attack had already been committed, but governments should have a response to any scenario.</p> 2019-11-28T15:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Karlo Jurica, Josip Vrdoljak, Irena Brčić Karačonji Forgotten partners and function regulators of inducible metallothioneins 2019-12-09T11:31:01+01:00 Mirela Pavić Petra Turčić Marija Ljubojević <p>Metallothioneins are peculiar cysteine rich, heat resistant, small cellular plasma proteins expressed through almost all life forms. The currently established biological functions of metallothioneins are the homeostasis of essential metals and protection against toxic transitional metals (TM) alongside defence from oxidative stress by direct scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). In mammals, among the four main evolutionary conserved forms, only the ubiquitously expressed metallothionein 1 and 2 (here abbreviated as MT) are inducible by TM, oxidative stress, glucocorticoids and starvation among various other stimuli. However, more than sixty years after being discovered, metallothioneins still bear unresolved issues about their possible physiological function and regulation. The biological function of MTs has still not been associated with the <em>in vitro</em>-demonstrated capacity of MT interaction with cellular molecules glutathione (GSH) or adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or with the possibility of direct iron-MT binding in the reducing intracellular environment of some organelles, e.g. lysosomes. Iron as the most abundant cellular TM is also one of the main physiological sources of ROS. Moreover, iron exhibits strain, sex and age differences that reflected ROS generation and MT induction in (patho)physiology and toxicology studies. A recent study showed that iron sex differences follows expression of both ferritin and MT leading to wide implications from essential TM interconnectivity to aging. This review places emphasis on biochemically proven but physiologically ignored interactions of MT with iron to stimulate advanced research for establishing a wide frame of the biological roles of MTs important for health and longevity.</p> 2019-11-28T12:03:45+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mirela Pavić, Petra Turčić, Marija Ljubojević Work ability index in Slovenian hospital nurses aged over fifty years 2019-12-09T11:31:01+01:00 Tanja Žmauc Danica Železnik Oto Težak <p>Nurses with reduced work ability are highly susceptible to the deleterious effects of their working environments, and their rates of sick leave, disability, and early retirement are higher than average. The aim of this study was to evaluate work ability in 433 Slovenian hospital nurses aged over fifty years providing secondary care in thirteen hospitals across Slovenia. To do that we used a standardised instrument known as work ability index (WAI). Mean WAI was 36.98±6.46 and median 38. WAI was not associated with age (Spearman’s ρ=-0.034, p=0.475). Total WAI score strongly correlated with the 1<sup>st</sup> item of the WAI questionnaire "current work ability" (ρ=0.726, p&lt;0.001). Higher WAI scores were also associated with academic education, full-time employment, and working in a single (morning) or three shifts. Our WAI findings in nurses over fifty call for systemic changes in the nursing environment to maintain good work ability among nurses until the retirement age and beyond.</p> 2019-11-26T10:12:21+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Tanja Žmauc, Danica Železnik, Oto Težak Acute administration of nicotine does not enhance cognitive functions 2019-12-09T11:31:02+01:00 Andrea Grus Ivana Hromatko <p>Chronic smokers often claim that smoking improves their cognitive abilities, such as concentration. However, scientific evidence to support this claim is scarce. Previous studies gave inconclusive results, and some of them had significant methodological flaws. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether smoking a single cigarette affects performance across several cognitive domains. It included a group of 22 occasional smokers aged 19–29 years. Attention, working memory, and visuospatial reasoning were assessed using a within-subjects design with a control setting. There were two separate testing sessions two days apart. Half the group started with experimental and the other half with control setting. In the experimental setting, the participants completed the first block of tasks, smoked one cigarette (with a nicotine yield of 0.5&nbsp;mg), and then completed the second block of tasks. In the control setting, the procedure was the same, except that the participants had a glass of water instead of a cigarette. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant effects of cigarette smoking on either reaction time rates or accuracy on any of the three cognitive domains. These results suggest that, at least among young, occasional smokers, smoking does not affect cognition and the claims of its improvement are probably a result of some sort of cognitive bias.</p> 2019-11-18T10:41:13+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Andrea Grus, Ivana Hromatko DNA damage assessment with buccal micronucleus cytome assay in Turkish coal miners 2019-12-10T09:50:35+01:00 Hatice Gul Anlar Merve Bacanlı Özlem Kar Kurt Canan Eraydın <p>The aim of this study was to assess DNA damage in Turkish coal miners with the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay as the least invasive and therefore most practical method that may find wider application in coal miner biomonitoring. Buccal epithelial cell samples were taken from 54 coal miners and 42 controls from Zonguldak, Turkey to establish their micronucleus (MN), binucleus (BN), condensed chromatin (CC), karyorrhectic (KHC), karyolytic (KYL), nuclear bud (NBUD), and pyknotic (PYC) frequencies. We also analysed the effects of confounding factors such as age, years of work at the mine, smoking, alcohol drinking, and use of protective equipment on differences in MN frequencies. Two miners had confirmed and three suspect pneumoconiosis, whereas 49 displayed normal chest radiographs. MN, BN, KHC, and NBUD frequencies were significantly higher in coal miners than controls. Years of work at the mine also showed a significant effect on buccal MN frequencies in coal miners, but we found no correlation between MN frequencies and age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In conclusion, BMCyt assay proved itself an accurate and practical screening method, as it can detect DNA damage much earlier than pneumoconiosis develops.</p> 2019-11-21T11:19:18+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hatice Gul Anlar, Merve Bacanlı, Özlem Kar Kurt, Canan Eraydın Negative correlation between the number of sunspots and the occurrence of 7Be and 22Na in the surface air and their contribution to radiation doses 2019-12-09T11:31:03+01:00 Drago Brodnik Denis Glavič-Cindro Matjaž Korun Marijan Nečemer Petra Maver-Modec Toni Petrovič Tim Vidmar Branko Vodenik Benjamin Zorko <p>This article presents yearly mean concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides <sup>7</sup>Be and <sup>22</sup>Na occurring in dry and wet depositions (fallout) and aerosols. Time dependencies negatively correlated with the yearly mean number of sunspots. Activity concentrations of <sup>7</sup>Be and <sup>22</sup>Na in aerosols in the surface air had a correlation of near-unity. <sup>7</sup>Be in aerosols exhibited a smoother time dependence than <sup>22</sup>Na, implying that the production of <sup>22</sup>Na is more sensitive to the solar activity than the production of <sup>7</sup>Be. The effect of the measured doses on the general population through internal and external exposure to radiation from cosmogenic radionuclides was small.</p> 2019-12-05T10:47:56+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Drago Brodnik, Denis Glavič-Cindro, Matjaž Korun, Marijan Nečemer, Petra Maver-Modec, Toni Petrovič, Tim Vidmar, Branko Vodenik, Benjamin Zorko Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations in Croatian elementary school classrooms during the heating season 2019-12-09T11:31:03+01:00 Dario Brdarić Krunoslav Capak Vlatka Gvozdić Andrea Barišin Jagoda Doko Jelinić Andrey Egorov Matej Šapina Sanja Kalambura Karolina Kramarić <p>Aware that exposure to stuffy indoor air with high levels of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is associated with higher absenteeism and reduced academic performance in school pupils, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe initiated indoor air quality surveys in schools, including CO<sub>2</sub> monitoring, to assess ventilation and exposure to stuffy air. Here we report the findings of the first such survey in Croatia. It was conducted in 60 classrooms of 20 urban and rural elementary schools throughout the country during the heating season. Measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> levels showed that all 60 classrooms exceeded the international guidelines of 1938&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Mean CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations ranged from 2771 to 7763&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup>. The highest concentration measured in urban schools was 7763&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup> and in rural schools 4771&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Average CO<sub>2</sub> levels were higher in continental schools (3683&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup>) than the coastal ones (3134&nbsp;mg/m<sup>3</sup>), but all demonstrate poor ventilation during the heating season all over Croatia.</p> 2019-12-03T10:49:37+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Dario Brdarić, Krunoslav Capak, Vlatka Gvozdić, Andrea Barišin, Jagoda Doko Jelinić, Andrey Egorov, Matej Šapina, Sanja Kalambura, Karolina Kramarić Toxic activity of Prunus spinosa L. flower extract in hepatocarcinoma cells 2019-12-09T11:31:04+01:00 Teuta Murati Marina Miletić Josipa Kolarić Vanja Lovrić Danijela Bursać Kovačević Predrag Putnik Irena Landeka Jurčević Domagoj Đikić Verica Dragović-Uzelac Ivana Kmetič <p><em>Prunus spinosa</em> L. (blackthorn) is used in traditional medicine as a remedy for various diseases. To establish its anticancer properties, we exposed human liver cancer cells (Hep&nbsp;G2) to a range of blackthorn flower extract concentrations (10–200&nbsp;µg/mL) and determined cytotoxic activity with the neutral red and kenacid blue methods after 24, 48, and 72&nbsp;h of incubation. Statistically significant inhibitory effects on Hep&nbsp;G2 cellular proliferation were observed at concentrations above 50&nbsp;µg/mL (p&lt;0.001–0.05). Cell viability was lower when determined with neutral red than kenacid blue method. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant/prooxidant effects of the blackthorn flower extract by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the results confirmed its prooxidant behaviour within the applied concentration range. Flow cytometry determined primarily necrotic and apoptotic cell death, which provides additional evidence of its cytotoxic effect on liver carcinoma.</p> 2019-11-25T14:29:54+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Teuta Murati, Marina Miletić, Josipa Kolarić, Vanja Lovrić, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Predrag Putnik, Irena Landeka Jurčević, Domagoj Đikić, Verica Dragović-Uzelac, Ivana Kmetič Synergistic effects of parabens and plastic nanoparticles on proliferation of human breast cancer cells 2019-12-09T11:31:04+01:00 Željka Roje Krunoslav Ilić Emerik Galić Ivan Pavičić Petra Turčić Zdenko Stanec Ivana Vinković Vrček <p>Many personal care products on the market contain endocrine disrupting chemicals, including parabens. Parabens are well known chemical additives used as preservatives. They have been found in mammary glands and breast cancer tissues. At the same time, the general public is increasingly exposed to plastic micro- and nanoparticles generated during plastic production and waste disposal. Exposure to chemical cocktails is a realistic scenario of high public health interest, in which many types of compounds such as these two may exhibit synergistic or additive adverse effects. This study evaluated the effects of plastic nanoparticles, parabens, and their mixture on the viability and proliferation of two human breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB&nbsp;231, which lacks oestrogen receptors, and MCF-7, which expresses these receptors. Parabens increased proliferation of oestrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells, and this effect became synergistic in the presence of plastic nanoparticles. The mechanism behind synergy may be related to the translocation and adsorption properties of nanoplastics, which served as a Trojan horse to expose cells to parabens more efficiently. These preliminary findings support growing evidence warning about the urgent problem of human exposure to combinations of plastic waste and contingent chemicals.</p> 2019-12-03T10:52:36+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Željka Roje, Krunoslav Ilić, Emerik Galić, Ivan Pavičić, Petra Turčić, Zdenko Stanec, Ivana Vinković Vrček Effects of butylparaben on antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathological changes in rat tissues 2019-12-09T11:31:05+01:00 Duygu Aydemir Burcu Öztaşcı Nurhayat Barlas Nuray Nuriye Ulusu <p>Butyl <em>p</em>-hydroxybenzoic acid, also known as butylparaben (BP), is one of the most common parabens absorbed by the skin and gastrointestinal tract and metabolised in the liver and kidney. Recent <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> studies have raised concern that BP causes reproductive, development, and teratogenic toxicity. However, BP-induced oxidative stress and its relation to tissue damage has not been widely investigated before. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate on enzyme activities related to the pentose phosphate pathway and on glutathione-dependent enzymes such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in kidney, liver, brain, and testis tissues. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups to orally receive corn oil (control) or 200, 400, or 800&nbsp;mg/kg/day of BP for 14 days. Then we measured G6PD, GR, GST, 6-PGD, and GPx enzyme activities in these tissues and studied histopathological changes. BP treatment caused imbalance in antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue damage in the liver, kidney, brain, and testis. These findings are the first to show the degenerative role of BP on the cellular level. The observed impairment of equivalent homeostasis and antioxidant defence points to oxidative stress as a mechanism behind tissue damage caused by BP.</p> 2019-11-28T14:59:21+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Duygu Aydemir, Burcu Öztaşcı, Nurhayat Barlas, Nuray Nuriye Ulusu Optimisation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in rat urine 2019-12-10T09:51:50+01:00 Nino Fuchs Alena Miljanić Anja Katić Nataša Brajenović Vedran Micek Radovan Fuchs Irena Brčić Karačonji <p>In order to evaluate the effect of irinotecan (IRI) on urinary elimination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a rat experimental model, we developed an analytical method for the determination of the mass concentration of THC and its metabolites [11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH)] in the urine of rats treated only with THC and treated simultaneously with THC and irinotecan. For this purpose, hydrolysis and solid phase extraction conditions of the investigated analytes were optimised and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed to determine all three analytes in rat urine. The most effective hydrolysis method for THC, THC-OH, and THC-COOH conjugates was so-called tandem hydrolysis by the β-glucuronidase enzyme from Escherichia coli at 50 °C for 2 hours and followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The proposed method was then applied for determining concentrations of analytes in 24-hour rat urine. THC was not detected in either sample, THC-OH was detected in 50 % of samples, and THC-COOH in all of the samples. Enhanced urinary THC-COOH excretion was noted in rats administered combined treatment compared to single THC treatment. The method described herein was suitable for determining the mass concentration of THC metabolites in the rat urine due to its sensitivity (detection limits: 0.8-1.0 μg/L), accuracy (&gt;96 %), and precision (RSD &lt;6 %).</p> 2019-12-04T11:00:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nino Fuchs, Alena Miljanić, Andreja Jurič, Anja Katić, Nataša Brajenović, Vedran Micek, Radovan Fuchs, Marijana Neuberg, Irena Brčić Karačonji