Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 2019-01-03T12:04:41+01:00 Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju Open Journal Systems <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor (2017):<strong> 1.117</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor (2017):<strong><strong> 1.335</strong></strong></p> </div> Sodium-glucose cotransporters: new targets of cancer therapy? 2019-01-03T12:04:37+01:00 Ivana Vrhovac Madunić Josip Madunić Davorka Breljak Dean Karaica Ivan Sabolić <p>Glucose, the key source of metabolic energy, is imported into cells by two categories of transporters: 1) facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) and 2) secondary active sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Cancer cells have an increased demand for glucose uptake and utilisation compared to normal cells. Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of GLUTs, mainly GLUT1, in many cancer types. As the current standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) for imaging tumour cells via GLUT1 lacks in sensitivity and specificity, it may soon be replaced by the newly designed, highly sensitive and specific SGLT tracer α-methyl-4-(F-18)fluoro-4-deoxy-D-glucopyranoside (Me-4FDG) in clinical detection and tumour staging. This tracer has recently demonstrated the functional activity of SGLT in pancreatic, prostate, and brain cancers. The mRNA and protein expression of SGLTs have also been reported in colon/colorectal, lung, ovarian, head, neck, and oral squamous carcinomas. So far, SGLTs have been poorly investigated in cancer, and their protein expression and localisation are often controversial due to a lack of specific SGLT antibodies. In this review, we describe current knowledge concerning SGLT1 and SGLT2 (over)expression in various cancer types. The findings of SGLTs in malignant cells may help in developing novel cancer therapies with SGLT2 or SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors already used in diabetes mellitus treatment.</p> 2018-11-22T16:27:29+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sex-independent expression of chloride/formate exchanger Cfex (Slc26a6) in rat pancreas, small intestine, and liver and male-dominant expression in kidneys 2019-01-03T12:04:38+01:00 Dean Karaica Davorka Breljak Jovica Lončar Mila Lovrić Vedran Micek Ivana Vrhovac Madunić Hrvoje Brzica Carol M. Herak-Kramberger Jana Ivković Dupor Marija Ljubojević Tvrtko Smital Željka Vogrinc Gerhard Burckhardt Birgitta C. Burckhardt Ivan Sabolić <p>Chloride/formate exchanger (CFEX; SLC26A6) mediates oxalate transport in various mammalian organs. Studies in Cfex knockout mice indicated its possible role in development of male-dominant hyperoxaluria and oxalate urolithiasis. Rats provide an important model for studying this pathophysiological condition, but data on Cfex (rCfex) localisation and regulation in their organs are limited. Here we applied the RT-PCR and immunochemical methods to investigate rCfex mRNA and protein expression and regulation by sex hormones in the pancreas, small intestine, liver, and kidneys from intact prepubertal and adult as well as gonadectomised adult rats treated with sex hormones. rCfex cDNA-transfected HEK293 cells were used to confirm the specificity of the commercial anti-CFEX antibody. Various biochemical parameters were measured in 24-h urine collected in metabolic cages. rCfex mRNA and related protein expression varied in all tested organs. Sex-independent expression of the rCfex protein was detected in pancreatic intercalated ducts (apical domain), small intestinal enterocytes (brush-border membrane; duodenum &gt; jejunum &gt; ileum), and hepatocytes (canalicular membrane). In kidneys, the rCfex protein was immunolocalised to the proximal tubule brush-border with segment-specific pattern (S1=S2&lt;S3), and both rCfex mRNA and protein expression exhibited male-dominant sex differences driven by stimulatory effects of androgens after puberty. However, urinary oxalate excretion was unrelated to renal rCfex protein expression. While the effect of male-dominant expression of rCfex in renal proximal tubules on urine oxalate excretion remains unknown, its expression in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane may be a pathway of oxalate elimination via bile.</p> 2018-12-04T15:04:13+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of adrenaline-induced DNA damage in whole blood cells with the comet assay 2019-01-03T12:04:38+01:00 Dijana Topalović Dragana Dekanski Biljana Spremo-Potparević Ninoslav Djelić Vladan Bajić Lada Živković <p>Harmful effects of elevated levels of catecholamines are mediated by various mechanisms, including gene transcription and formation of oxidation products. The aim of this study was to see whether the molecular mechanisms underlying the damaging action of adrenaline on DNA are mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To do that, we exposed human whole blood cells to 10&nbsp;µmol&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> adrenaline or 50&nbsp;µmol&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (used as positive control) that were separately pre-treated or post-treated with 500&nbsp;µmol&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> of quercetin, a scavenger of free radicals. Quercetin significantly reduced DNA damage in both pre- and post-treatment protocols, which suggests that adrenaline mainly acts via the production of ROS. This mechanism is also supported by gradual lowering of adrenaline and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced DNA damage 15, 30, 45, and 60&nbsp;min after treatment. Our results clearly show that DNA repair mechanisms are rather effective against ROS-mediated DNA damage induced by adrenaline.</p> 2018-11-23T12:48:57+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Organic dust exposure in veterinary clinics: a case study of a small-animal practice in Portugal 2019-01-03T12:04:38+01:00 Carla Viegas Ana Monteiro Edna Ribeiro Liliana Aranha Caetano Elisabete Carolino Ricardo Assunção Susana Viegas <p>Literature about occupational health in small-animal veterinary practices is scarce, but most of it has recognised a number of risks to be considered, including organic dust exposure. The aim of this pilot study was to assess organic dust, bacterial, and fungal contamination in the indoor environment of a typical Portuguese veterinary clinic but also to screen for azole-resistant fungi. To complement these findings we also analysed workers' nasal exudates for resistant bacteriota. Particles measurements included mass concentrations (PMC) of five particle sizes (PM<sub>0.5</sub>, PM<sub>1</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>) and their counts (PNC). Indoor air samples were obtained from six locations as well as before and during cat dental cleaning and cultured on four media for bacterial and fungal assessment. An outdoor sample was also collected for reference Surface samples were taken from the same indoor locations using swabs and we also use electrostatic dust cloths as passive methods. PM<sub>10</sub> showed the highest concentrations across the locations. Indoor air fungal loads ranged from 88 to 504&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>−3</sup>. The azole-resistant <em>Aspergillus</em> section <em>Nigri</em> was identified in one sample. Indoor air bacterial loads ranged from 84 to 328&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>. Nasopharyngeal findings in the 14 veterinary clinic workers showed a remarkably low prevalence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (7.1&nbsp;%). Our results point to contamination with organic dusts above the WHO limits and to the need for better ventilation. Future studies should combine the same sampling protocol (active and passive methods) with molecular tools to obtain more accurate risk characterisation. In terms of prevention, animals should be caged in rooms separate from where procedures take place, and worker protection should be observed at all times.</p> 2018-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seasonal diversity of biodeteriogenic, pathogenic, and toxigenic constituents of airborne mycobiota in a sacral environment 2019-01-03T12:04:39+01:00 Nikola Unković Ivica Dimkić Slaviša Stanković Aleksa Jelikić Dragan Stanojević Slađana Popović Miloš Stupar Jelena Vukojević Milica Ljaljević Grbić <p>The main purpose of this study was to isolate airborne fungi and assess seasonal variations in air contamination with their particulates by determining the levels of their propagules in the nave and exonarthex of a church. We also monitored indoor microclimate as a determining factor for fungal proliferation on wall paintings, spore release, and transmission through the air. The temperature and relative humidity of the nave favoured fungal growth. A total of 33 fungi were isolated, mainly of the phylum Ascomycota, and to the lesser extent of the phyla Zygomycota and Basidiomycota. The most common were the fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus (23.55&nbsp;% and 20.58&nbsp;%, respectively). Sørensen’s quotient of similarity (0.37) suggests moderate species overlap and constant exchange of fungal propagules between the nave and exonarthex. The autumn had the highest diversity, with 17 documented taxa, followed by the summer and the winter. The spring had only eight taxa. Quantitative analysis of the airborne mycobiota in the nave (430±84.85 to 1880±106.07&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>) and exonarthex (715±59.62 to 2295±91.92&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>) showed very high contamination throughout the year, with values exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations by most standards. Many of the fungi determined in this study are known for their biodeteriogenic, toxigenic, and allergenic properties, and are a threat not only to occasional visitors and staff, but also to valuable works of art decorating nave walls.</p> 2018-11-29T15:06:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of pretreatments on mycotoxin profiles and levels in dried figs 2019-01-03T12:04:39+01:00 Jasenka Petrić Bojan Šarkanj Ibrahim Mujić Aida Mujić Michael Sulyok Rudolf Krska Drago Šubarić Stela Jokić <p>The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how effective drying preservation methods are in reducing mycotoxin content in figs. Dried autochthonous varieties of white and dark figs (Petrovača Bijela and Šaraguja, respectively) were analysed for mycotoxins using an LC-MS/MS “dilute and shoot” method capable of determining 295 fungal and bacterial secondary metabolites. Before drying in a cabinet dryer the figs were preserved with 0.5&nbsp;% citric acid solution or 0.5&nbsp;% ascorbic acid solution or 0.3&nbsp;% L–cysteine solution or 0.2&nbsp;% chestnut extract solution or 0.15&nbsp;% Echinacea extract solution by immersion. We found nine metabolites: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A, ochratoxin alpha, kojic acid, emodin, altenuene, alternariol methyl ether, brevianamide F, and tryptophol. The most efficient preserver was L-cysteine (15&nbsp;% reduction), while ascorbic acid favoured mycotoxin production (158&nbsp;% increase). However, all pretreatment solutions reduced AFB1, which is a major fig contaminant.</p> 2018-12-12T11:47:02+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Removing aflatoxin M1 from milk with native lactic acid bacteria, centrifugation, and filtration 2019-01-03T12:04:39+01:00 Željka Kuharić Željko Jakopović Iva Čanak Jadranka Frece Jasna Bošnir Željka Pavlek Martina Ivešić Ksenija Markov <p>In order to minimise human exposure to aflatoxin M<sub>1</sub> (AFM<sub>1</sub>) the levels of this highly carcinogenic mycotoxin in milk, heat-treated milk, and other dairy products have been limited to &lt;0.05&nbsp;µg&nbsp;kg<sup>-1</sup>. However, its removal from dairy products presents a challenge for dairy producers, as commercial additives change organoleptic properties, and filtration alone yields poor results. The aim of this study was to find a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from milk or dairy products that most effectively binds AFM<sub>1</sub> and to see whether heat treatment of the selected LAB affects the binding efficiency. We also wanted to investigate whether centrifugation can improve filtering of the obtained AFM<sub>1</sub>-LAB complexes from milk. To do that, we isolated and identified 10 native LAB species/strains, incubated their viable or heat-treated cells (10<sup>8</sup>&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;mL<sup>-1</sup>) in milk spiked with 0.5&nbsp;µg&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> of AFM<sub>1</sub> at 4&nbsp;°C for 0, 2, 4, and 24 h, and quantified the amount of unbound AFM<sub>1</sub> with HPLC. AFM<sub>1</sub> binding efficiency ranged from 21 to 92&nbsp;% for viable cells and from 26 to 94&nbsp;% for the heat-treated ones. Since both viable and heat-treated <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> KM showed the best results, we used it for the next step in AFM<sub>1</sub> removal from milk. Heat treatment in combination with filtration and centrifugation yielded removal as high as 96&nbsp;%.</p> 2018-12-03T15:16:01+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Residential green and blue space associated with better mental health: a pilot follow-up study in university students 2019-01-03T12:04:40+01:00 Angel Dzhambov <p>Previous research has suggested that natural urban environment (green space and blue space) benefit mental health, but only a few longitudinal studies have explored the underlying mechanisms. In this pilot study we aimed to examine mechanisms/variables mediating associations between residential green/blue space and symptoms of anxiety/depression in 109 Bulgarian students from Plovdiv university. The students were followed from the beginning to the end of the school year (October 2017 to May 2018). Residential green space was defined as the mean of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in circular buffers of 100, 300, and 500&nbsp;m around their residences. Blue space was assessed based on its presence in the same buffers. Levels of anxiety/depression were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The investigated mediator variables included residential noise (L<sub>day</sub>) and air pollution (NO<sub>2</sub>), environmental annoyance, perceived restorative quality of the neighbourhood, neighbourhood social cohesion, physical activity, and sleep disturbance. Cross-sectional data (obtained at baseline) showed that higher NDVI correlated with better mental health only indirectly through higher physical activity and restorative quality. Longitudinal (follow-up) data showed improved mental health but no significant effect of mediator variables. Similarly, blue space correlated with better mental health in all models, but physical activity and restorative quality were significant mediator variables only in the cross-sectional analysis. Our findings support that green space and blue space are psychologically restorative features in urban environment. Future research should replicate these findings in the general population and employ longitudinal modelling tailored to the specific mechanisms under study.</p> 2018-11-29T15:06:58+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A unique case of a 70-hour decompression sickness latency 2019-01-03T12:04:40+01:00 Hasan Kovačević Julijana Franinović Marković <p>We report a unique and well-documented case of a type II decompression sickness with a latency interval of 70 hours. It may raise divers’ awareness and help medical practitioners to keep suspect divers under close observation longer than before and identify and treat DCS accordingly.</p> 2018-12-03T11:38:13+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Praćenje vršnog ekspiratornog protoka u dijagnozi profesionalne astme 2019-01-03T12:04:40+01:00 Jelena Macan Dina Skroza <p>Prema podacima iz Registra profesionalnih bolesti Hrvatskoga zavoda za zaštitu zdravlja i sigurnost na radu, u posljednjih deset godina (2008. ‒ 2017.) prijavljeno je samo 20 slučajeva profesionalne astme od ukupno 2234 prijavljene profesionalne bolesti. To upućuje na značajne nedostatke u prepoznavanju toga poremećaja u našoj radnoj populaciji. Cilj ovoga rada bio je opisati standardnu metodu praćenja vršnog ekspiratornog protoka zraka (eng. peak expiratory flow, PEF) i predložiti praktičnu smjernicu za korištenje te dijagnostičke metode u ambulantama medicine rada i sporta. Praćenje vršnog ekspiratornog protoka zraka (PEF-monitoring) jednostavna je, jeftina, neinvazivna i pouzdana metoda za utvrđivanje funkcije dišnog sustava u stvarnim uvjetima rada i radnog okoliša. Sadašnje smjernice preporučuju PEF-monitoring kao inicijalnu dijagnostičku metodu prilikom sumnje na profesionalnu astmu. Pozitivan test upozorava na povezanost promjene plućne funkcije s radnom izloženošću i važan je dio dijagnostičkoga procesa utvrđivanja profesionalne astme. Najveći je nedostatak te metode da se tim testom ne može utvrditi uzrok astme, tj. on ne razlikuje profesionalnu astmu od astme pogoršane na radu, nema standardizirane metode za interpretaciju rezultata, a mjerenja provode sami radnici pa su moguće namjerne i nenamjerne manipulacije rezultatima mjerenja. U radu je predložena praktična smjernica za primjenu te metode u ambulantama medicine rada i sporta, s preporukama protokola mjerenja PEF-a, prikaza rezultata mjerenja i njihove interpretacije u sklopu dijagnosticiranja profesionalne astme.</p> 2018-11-29T15:02:41+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SHAMISEN SINGS project – stakeholders involvement in generating science (radiation protection) 2019-01-03T12:04:41+01:00 Liudmila Liutsko Adelaida Sarukhan Paola Fattibene Sara Della Monaca Sylvie Charron Joan Francesc Barquinero Vadim Chumak Takashi Ohba Koichi Tanigawa Yuliya Lyamzina Aya Goto Yevgenia Tomkiv Deborah Oughton Philippe Pirard Natallia Novikava Mélanie Maître Pascal Croüail Thierry Shneider An Van Nieuwenhuyse Elisabeth Cardis 2018-11-28T15:11:50+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Translation and application of the SHAMISEN recommendations for preparedness and remediation after nuclear accidents to other disaster types (chemical, natural, etc.) 2019-01-03T12:04:41+01:00 Liudmila Liutsko Adelaida Sarukhan Elisabeth Cardis Deborah Oughton 2018-11-28T15:11:24+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##