Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 2018-10-01T11:51:30+02:00 Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju Open Journal Systems <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor (2017):<strong> 1.117</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor (2017):<strong><strong> 1.335</strong></strong></p> </div> Yesterday masked, today modified; what do mycotoxins bring next? 2018-09-26T09:58:30+02:00 Marija Kovač Drago Šubarić Mateja Bulaić Tihomir Kovač Bojan Šarkanj <p>Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi in crops worldwide. In (micro)organisms such as plants, fungi, bacteria, or animals they may be further metabolised and modified, but this is also true for food processing, which may lead to a wide range of masked mycotoxin forms. These often remain undetected by analytical methods and are the culprits for underestimates in risk assessments. Furthermore, once ingested, modified mycotoxins can convert back to their parent forms. This concern has raised the need for analytical methods that can detect and quantify modified mycotoxins as essential for accurate risk assessment. The promising answer is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. New masked mycotoxin forms are now successfully detected by iontrap, time-of-flight, or high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometers. However, the toxicological relevance of modified mycotoxins has not been fully clarified.</p> 2018-09-10T14:55:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clara cell protein 16 release from the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and exposure to air pollutants 2018-09-26T09:58:30+02:00 Aleksandar Perić Cveta Špadijer Mirković Danilo Vojvodić <p>Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) is a small protein mainly produced by non-ciliated Clara cells in the respiratory epithelium. It has an anti-inflammatory role in chronic upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammations. Decreased levels of CC16 are found in the nasal secretions and plasma of patients with chronic eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps, as well as in people exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Intranasal corticosteroid administration suppresses chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa driven by eosinophils and stimulates local CC16 production. CC16 can be a reliable biomarker of the beneficial effects of perennial allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis therapy and of the functional recovery of the nasal mucosa after treatment with topical glucocorticoids.</p> 2018-09-20T10:54:04+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Employment status of workers with a diagnosed occupational disease in Croatia: a 10-year trend (2005-2014) 2018-10-01T11:51:30+02:00 Renata Ecimović Nemarnik Jelena Macan <p>Occupational diseases (ODs) often have a chronic, progressive course, resulting in reduced work capacity and quality of life, prolonged sick leaves, unemployment, early retirements, and disability claims. The aim of this retrospective study was to see how diagnosed ODs affected the employment of 95 Croatian workers between 2005 and 2014. To do that, we reviewed archived data and made a telephone survey. The lowest age at which an OD was diagnosed was 20 years in women and 22 in men, while the shortest duration of work before OD diagnosis was one year for both genders. The most common ODs were overuse syndromes on the arms, carpal tunnel syndrome in particular, diagnosed mostly in textile and office workers. Of the 95 participants, 12 lost their jobs since the OD diagnosis, 46 retired, and 37 continued to work. Significantly more participants became unemployed after OD diagnosis in the period 2010-2014 than 2005-2009 (9 out of 43, 21&nbsp;%, vs. 3 out of 52, 6&nbsp;%, p&lt;0.05). Only five participants were included in an occupational rehabilitation programme. Our findings warn against the deterioration in care for workers diagnosed with OD in Croatia.</p> 2018-09-21T12:12:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A new approach to assessing occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs in hospital environments 2018-09-26T09:58:31+02:00 Stefano Dugheri Alessandro Bonari Ilenia Pompilio Pierpaolo Boccalon Nicola Mucci Giulio Arcangeli <p>Cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs (ADs) pose occupational risk and therefore require safe handling practices. We created, optimised, and validated an innovative monitoring protocol for simultaneously assessing 21 ADs in the healthcare environment, and also proposed surface exposure levels (SELs) to facilitate the interpretation of monitoring results, as there are currently no occupational exposure limits for ADs. The environmental AD monitoring data were collected in nine Italian hospitals between 2008 and 2017 and include 74,565 measurements in 4,814 wipe samples. Excellent overall recovery and sensitivity of the analytical methods along with innovative desorption automation make this protocol useful for routine monitoring. AD contamination was found in 3,081 measurements, confirming potential exposure in healthcare workers. Samples taken at the beginning and the end of work shifts, allowed to calculate 75th and 90th percentile values for each ADs both in preparation and administration units and we created a traffic-light colour-coding system to facilitate interpretation of the findings. The introduction of SELs will provide a solid basis for improving occupational safety and focusing on contamination control.</p> 2018-09-11T12:02:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs: the importance of surface cleaning to prevent or minimise exposure 2018-09-26T09:58:32+02:00 Susana Viegas Ana Cebola de Oliveira Elisabete Carolino Mário Pádua <p>Healthcare workers who prepare or administer cytotoxic agents run the risk of exposure, and the risks for health are real even at doses lower than those applied in cancer patients, because, in theory, no dose is safe. The most common and problematic route of exposure is through the skin, especially as work surfaces can remain contaminated even after cleaning. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the importance of having an effective surface decontamination protocol by determining surface contamination with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel as the most common cytotoxic drugs in the drug preparation unit, drug administration unit, and the patient toilet of an oncology day service. Samples were collected before and after drug handling and analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Of the 29 samples collected before drug handling 23 were contaminated, five of which with more than one drug. Of the 30 samples collected after drug handling 25 were contaminated, eight of which with more than one drug. The two time points did not significantly differ, which evidences a widespread contamination and ineffective cleaning. This calls for revising the cleaning protocol and handling procedure to place contamination under control as much as possible.</p> 2018-08-21T15:26:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occupational exposure to bioburden in Portuguese bakeries: an approach to sampling viable microbial load 2018-09-26T09:58:32+02:00 Carla Viegas Ana Monteiro Elisabete Carolino Susana Viegas <p>In bakeries, a number of operations such as mixing are associated with exposure to air-suspended flour dust and related bioburden. The aim of this study was to find the best active sampling approach to the assessment of occupational exposure to bioburden in Portuguese bakeries based on the data obtained with the use of specific impaction and impinger devices. We used impaction to collect fungal particles from 100&nbsp;L air samples onto malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.05&nbsp;%). For growing fungi we also used dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media and for mesophilic bacteria we used tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with nystatin (0.2&nbsp;%). For <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> we used violet red bile agar (VRBA). With impingers we also collected 300&nbsp;L air samples at the 300 L/min airflow rate, inoculated onto the same culture media. The two methods, impaction and impinger, showed statistically significant differences in the following counts: fungal on MEA (z=-2.721, p=0.007), fungal on DG18 (z=-4.830, p=0.000), total bacteria (z=-5.435, p=0.000), and Gram-negative coliforms (z=-3.716, p=0.000). In all cases the impaction method detected significantly higher concentrations than the impinger method. Fungal and bacterial loads were higher in the production unit and lower in the shop. The fungal load obtained with impaction varied between 10 and 5140&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>, and total bacterial counts ranged between 10 and 4120&nbsp;CFU&nbsp;m<sup>-3</sup>. This study has shown that the impaction method is the best active sampling approach to assessing viable bioburden in this specific occupational environment, but a multi-faceted approach to sampling and analyses combining methods and media enables a more refined risk characterisation and, consequently, better tailored risk control measures to reduce adverse health outcomes in workers.</p> 2018-09-11T14:33:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How sulphur dioxide and storage temperature contribute to patulin degradation in homemade apple juice 2018-09-26T09:58:32+02:00 Martina Bevardi Marinko Petrović Ksenija Markov Jasna Bošnir <p>Mycotoxin patulin is one of the quality indicators for apple juice. Like other mycotoxins, it raises consumer health concerns. The issue of low quality is particularly relevant for apples provided by small producers, whose quality control may not be standardised. As sulphur dioxide (SO2) is common in fruit preservation against fungi, the aim of this study was to determine how efficient it is in degrading patulin in apple juices stored in real-life conditions. This included refrigerated (4 °C) and non-refrigerated warehouses/environments (30&nbsp;°C) over 8, 10, 12, and 20 weeks of storage. Apple juice was diluted to 0.010&nbsp;µg&nbsp;g-1, 0.050&nbsp;µg&nbsp;g-1, and 0.100&nbsp;µg&nbsp;g-1 of patulin. SO2 was added to each sample in the amounts of 250&nbsp;µg&nbsp;mL-1 and 50&nbsp;µg&nbsp;mL-1. Untreated juice samples for each patulin concentration served as controls under the same experimental conditions. Patulin content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography. The best degradation was observed with 250&nbsp;µg&nbsp;mL-1 of SO2 at 30&nbsp;°C regardless of the patulin baseline concentration. Although treatment with SO2 and refrigeration did not fully remove patulin, it was highly efficient over twelve weeks of storage. Our results suggest that patulin levels can be reduced between 33 and 100&nbsp;% at 30&nbsp;°C and up to 100&nbsp;% at 4&nbsp;°C.</p> 2018-09-18T10:39:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urban honey – the aspects of its safety 2018-09-26T09:58:33+02:00 Milica S. Jovetić Azra S. Redžepović Nebojša M. Nedić Denis Vojt Slađana Z. Đurđić Ilija D. Brčeski Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica <p>To contribute to the development of urban beekeeping, we designed this study to obtain more information about the contamination of urban bee products with toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. The samples of honey (N=23), pollen (N=13), and floral nectar (N=6) were collected from the experimental stationary apiary of the Belgrade University Faculty of Agriculture located in centre of Zemun (a municipality of the Belgrade metropolitan area) in 2015 and 2016. Metals (Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Hg) were determined with inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Pesticides were analysed with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The honey samples were generally within the European and Serbian regulatory limits. The levels of all the 123 analysed pesticides were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). Regarding PAH levels in honey, the highest content was found for naphthalene. The elevated levels of Hg and Cr and of PAHs in the pollen samples indicated air pollution. Pesticide residues in pollen, however, were below the LOQ. In nectar, metal levels were relatively similar to those in honey. Our results suggest that the investigated urban honey meets the regulatory requirements for metals, PAHs, and pesticides and is therefore safe for consumption.</p> 2018-09-24T14:42:21+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Whole blood exchange transfusion as a promising treatment of aluminium phosphide poisoning 2018-09-26T09:58:33+02:00 Nasim Zamani Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam Sakine Ebrahimi <p>A 37-year-old male was referred to us about one hour after deliberate ingestion of two 3-gram aluminium phosphide (ALP) tablets. Three hours after admission, his blood pressure dropped to 85/55&nbsp;mmHg, his heart rate increased to 120&nbsp;bpm, O2 saturation dropped to 82&nbsp;%, and the electrocardiogram showed junctional rhythm. We started whole blood exchange, and gross haematuria and jaundice ensued. However, his blood pressure increased, arrhythmia resolved itself, and he was extubated two days after the transfusion was completed. He was sent home seven days after admission completely symptom-free. We believe this treatment may be successfully applied in ALP-poisoned patients.</p> 2018-09-19T09:54:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##