Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 2020-12-17T10:08:13+01:00 Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju Open Journal Systems <div class="WordSection1"> <p><strong><em>Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology</em></strong> (Arh Hig Rada Toksikol) is an internationally peer-reviewed biomedical scientific quarterly that publishes contributions relevant to all aspects of environmental and occupational health and toxicology.</p> <p>Indexed in <strong>SCI Expanded</strong>,<strong> Medline</strong>/<strong>PubMed</strong>,<strong> Scopus</strong>, Animal Science Database, Biological Sciences (CSA), BIOSIS Previews, GreenFile, INIS, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Water Resources Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, TEMA, TOXLINE, AGRIS, Food Science and Technology Abstracts – FSTA, and Ergonomic Abstracts.</p> <p><em>Archives</em> is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> <p>Impact Factor:<strong> 1.436</strong></p> <p>5-year Impact Factor:<strong><strong> 1.606</strong></strong></p> </div> Counteracting poisoning with chemical warfare nerve agents 2020-12-17T10:08:03+01:00 Nikolina Maček Hrvat Zrinka Kovarik <p>Phosphylation of the pivotal enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by nerve agents (NAs) leads to irreversible inhibition of the enzyme and accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which induces cholinergic crisis, that is, overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic membrane receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system. In severe cases, subsequent desensitisation of the receptors results in hypoxia, vasodepression, and respiratory arrest, followed by death. Prompt action is therefore critical to improve the chances of victim's survival and recovery. Standard therapy of NA poisoning generally involves administration of anticholinergic atropine and an oxime reactivator of phosphylated AChE. Anticholinesterase compounds or NA bioscavengers can also be applied to preserve native AChE from inhibition. With this review of 70 years of research we aim to present current and potential approaches to counteracting NA poisoning.</p> 2020-11-30T13:34:22+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Zrinka Kovarik Carbamate group as structural motif in drugs: a review of carbamate derivatives used as therapeutic agents 2020-12-17T10:08:04+01:00 Anita Bosak Ana Matošević <p>Due to their very good chemical and proteolytic stability, ability to penetrate cell membranes, and resemblance to a peptide bond, carbamate derivatives have received much attention in recent years and got an important role in modern drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. Today, carbamates make structural and/or functional part of many drugs and prodrugs approved and marketed for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, epilepsy, hepatitis C, HIV infection, and Alzheimer's disease. In drugs they can play a role in drug-target interaction or improve the biological activity of parent molecules. In prodrugs they are mainly used to delay first-pass metabolism and enhance the bioavailability and effectiveness of compounds. This brief review takes a look at the properties and use of carbamates in various fields of medicine and provides quick insights into the mechanisms of action for some of them.</p> 2020-12-09T11:04:53+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anita Bosak, Ana Matošević Challenges to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds 2020-12-17T10:08:05+01:00 Marina Bubonja-Šonje Samira Knežević Maja Abram <p>As multidrug resistance gains momentum, the last two decades have seen an ever-growing interest in the antimicrobial properties of plant extracts and plant-derived compounds. Most of the focus is on polyphenols – a large and diverse group of phytochemicals with strong antibacterial activity. Testing methods provide reliable results as long as they follow standard procedures. However, methods and procedures used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are often too diverse to allow comparison of results. The lack of uniformity and comparability is much owed to the absence of guidelines. The focus of this review is to give a critical overview of different methods used in the assessment of polyphenols antimicrobial efficacy and to highlight the importance of their standardisation.</p> 2020-11-11T13:27:58+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marina Bubonja-Šonje, Samira Knežević, Maja Abram Experiences with the accreditation of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia 2020-12-17T10:08:06+01:00 Zdenko Franić Tomislav Bituh Ranka Godec Mirjana Čačković Tomislav Meštrović Jerko Šiško <p>Accreditation in accordance with the international General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories (HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard) has become a widely accepted method of quality management and objective evidence of technical competence, knowledge, and skills of testing and calibration laboratories. In 2010, the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (IMROH) had its management system accredited against the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the following scopes: determination of radioactivity, testing of ambient air quality, and testing in the scope of ionising radiation protection. This accreditation encompassed three laboratories: Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Hygiene Unit, and the Radiation Dosimetry and Radiobiology Unit. In accordance with the rules of the Croatian Accreditation Agency, the second re-accreditation is due in 2020. This paper describes and discusses the quality management system at IMROH over the ten years of its implementation. We share our experiences about non-conformities discovered during regular work, internal audits, and external audits performed by the Croatian Accreditation Agency. The accredited management system significantly improved the performance of the accredited units, and the Institute increased its visibility and marketing advantage, consequently improving its market position.</p> 2020-11-12T14:31:23+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Zdenko Franić Yellow gentian root extract provokes concentration- and time-dependent response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 2020-12-17T10:08:07+01:00 Ana Valenta Šobot Dunja Drakulić Gordana Joksić Jadranka Miletić Vukajlović Jasmina Savić Jelena Potočnik Jelena Filipović Tričković <p>Yellow gentian (<em>Gentiana lutea </em>L.), a medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine, displays multiple biological effects, ranging from beneficial to toxic. Since many promising applications have been reported so far, our aim was to evaluate its potential concentration- and time- dependent cytotoxic and genotoxic effects <em>in vitro</em>. To that end we exposed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to 0.5, 1, and 2&nbsp;mg/mL of yellow gentian root extract (YGRE) to determine its effects on oxidative stress parameters [pro/antioxidant balance (PAB) and lipid peroxidation], DNA damage (alkaline comet assay and chromosome aberrations), and cell viability (trypan blue exclusion test). Cell viability decreased with increasing concentrations and treatment duration. Only the lowest YGRE concentration (0.5&nbsp;mg/mL) increased oxidative stress but produced minor DNA damage and cytotoxicity. At higher concentrations, redox parameters returned to near control values. The percentage of chromosome aberrations and percentage of DNA in the comet tail increased with increased YGRE concentration after 48&nbsp;h and declined after 72&nbsp;h of treatment. This points to the activation of DNA repair mechanism (homologous recombination), evidenced by the formation of chromosomal radial figures after 72&nbsp;h of treatment with the highest YGRE concentration of 2&nbsp;mg/mL. Our results suggest that YGRE, despite induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, activates cell repair mechanisms that counter oxidative and DNA lesions and induce cell death in highly damaged cells. Therefore, observed protective effects of yellow gentian after longer exposure could be a result of activated repair and removal of cells with irreparable damage.</p> 2020-11-11T13:44:38+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Valenta Šobot, Dunja Drakulić, Gordana Joksić, Jadranka Miletić Vukajlović, Jasmina Savić, Jelena Potočnik, Jelena Filipović Tričković Cherry laurel fruit extract counters dimethoate-induced reproductive impairment and testicular apoptosis 2020-12-17T10:08:08+01:00 Elcin Bakir Serpil Sariozkan Burcu Unlu Endirlik Ayse Baldemir Kilic Arzu Hanım Yay Fazile Canturk Tan Ayse Eken Gaffari Turk <p>Dimethoate is an organophosphorus pesticide used against agricultural insects, which causes oxidative stress and damage in many organs, including the reproductive ones. Cherry laurel (<em>Laurocerasus officinalis </em>Roem.) fruit is rich in vitamins and phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was to investigate how effective its extract would be against dimethoate-induced testis and sperm damage in rats. Sixty animals were divided in six groups of 10. Group 1 (control) received only 1&nbsp;mL of saline (0.9&nbsp;% NaCl). Group 2 received 7&nbsp;mg/kg of dimethoate in 1&nbsp;mL of saline. Group 3 received 4&nbsp;mg/kg of extract in 1&nbsp;mL of saline. Group 4 received the extract 30&nbsp;min before dimethoate administration. Group 5 received vitamin C (positive control, 100&nbsp;mg/kg in 1&nbsp;mL of saline) 30&nbsp;min before dimethoate administration. Group 6 received only dimethoate for the first four weeks and then a combination of dimethoate and extract for another four weeks. All doses were administered daily by oral gavage. After eight weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanised and their reproductive organs removed. We took their body and reproductive organ weights and evaluated testicular oxidative stress, semen characteristics, sperm DNA damage, testicular apoptosis, and histopathological changes. Dimethoate significantly decreased body and reproductive organ weights, sperm motility and concentration, testicular superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-peroxidase activities and significantly increased lipid peroxidation, abnormal sperm rate, sperm DNA damage, testicular apoptosis, and caused histopathological lesions. Cherry laurel extract significantly countered many dimethoate-induced adverse effects, both as pre- and post-treatment, including reproductive organ weight, semen parameters, oxidant-antioxidant balance, sperm DNA integrity, testicular apoptosis, and histological structure. Our findings clearly suggest that the beneficial effects of the extract are associated with countering oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation in particular.</p> 2020-11-11T13:31:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elcin Bakir, Serpil Sariozkan, Burcu Unlu Endirlik, Ayse Baldemir Kilic, Arzu Hanım Yay, Fazile Canturk Tan, Ayse Eken, Gaffari Turk Biomonitoring findings for occupational lead exposure in battery and ceramic tile workers using biochemical markers, alkaline comet assay, and micronucleus test coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridisation 2020-12-17T10:08:09+01:00 Vilena Kašuba Mirta Milić Davor Želježić Marin Mladinić Alica Pizent Zorana Kljaković-Gašpić Melita Balija Irena Jukić <p>Manufacture of lead-containing products has long been associated with various health risks. To get an insight into the related genotoxic risks, we conducted a biomonitoring study in 50 exposed workers and 48 matched controls using a battery of endpoints that sensitively detect the extent of genome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The levels of primary DNA damage were estimated with the alkaline comet assay, while cytogenetic abnormalities were determined with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay. Additionally, CBMN slides of 20 exposed and 16 control participants were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), coupled with pancentromeric probes to establish the incidence of centromere-positive micronuclei, nuclear buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges. Blood lead levels (B-Pb) were measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. To further characterise cumulative effects of occupational exposure, we measured erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood. We also assessed the influence of serum folate (S-folate) and vitamin B12 (S-B12) on genome stability. Compared to controls, occupationally exposed workers demonstrated significantly higher B-Pb (298.36±162.07 vs 41.58±23.02), MN frequency (18.71±11.06 vs 8.98±7.50), centromere positive MN (C+ MN) (8.15±1.8 vs 3.69±0.47), and centromere negative MN (C- MN) (14.55±1.80 vs 4.56±0.89). Exposed women had significantly higher comet tail intensity (TI) and length (TL) than control women. Furthermore, workers showed a positive correlation between age and nuclear buds and MN, between MN and years of exposure, and between S-B12 levels and TI and ALAD activity, while a negative correlation was found between TI and B-Pb. These findings suggest that occupational settings in the manufacture of lead-containing products pose significant genotoxic risks, which calls for developing more effective work safety programmes, including periodical monitoring of B-Pb and genetic endpoints.</p> 2020-12-11T16:08:36+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Vilena Kašuba, Mirta Milić, Davor Želježić, Marin Mladinić, Alica Pizent, Zorana Kljaković-Gašpić, Melita Balija, Irena Jukić ABCB1, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms do not affect methadone maintenance treatment in HCV-positive patients 2020-12-17T10:08:10+01:00 Davorka Sutlović Zeljko Kljucevic Sendi Kuret <p>The aim of this study was to determine the influence of <em>ABCB1</em>, <em>CYP2B6,</em> and <em>CYP3A4</em> genetic polymorphisms on methadone metabolism in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The study included 35 participants undergoing MMT, who were divided in three groups: HCV-positive (N=12), HCV-negative (N=16), and HCV clinical remission (CR) (N=7). The concentrations of methadone and its main metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The patients were genotyped for <em>ABCB1</em> rs1045642, <em>CYP2B6</em> rs3745274, <em>CYP3A4</em> rs2242480, and <em>CYP3A4</em> rs2740574 polymorphisms. Differences between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and methadone-to-EDDP ratio were analysed with one-way ANOVA, which showed no significant difference between the genes (<em>p</em>=0.3772 for <em>ABCB1</em> rs1045642, <em>p</em>=0.6909 for <em>CYP2B6</em> rs3745274, and <em>p</em>=0.6533 for <em>CYP3A4</em> rs2242480). None of the four analysed SNP genotypes correlated with methadone-to-EDDP concentration ratio. A major influence on it in hepatitis C-positive patients turned out to be the stage of liver damage.</p> 2020-11-11T13:23:29+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Davorka Sutlović, Zeljko Kljucevic, Sendi Kuret The influence of specific aspects of occupational stress on security guards' health and work ability: detailed extension of a previous study 2020-12-17T10:08:11+01:00 Jovica Jovanović Ivana Šarac Jasmina Debeljak Martačić Gordana Petrović Oggiano Marta Despotović Biljana Pokimica Berim Cupi <p>In our earlier study of security guards, we showed that higher occupational stress was associated with health impairments (metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases) and work disability. The aim of this study was to further explore the association of specific occupational stressors with health impairments and work disability parameters in 399 Serbian male security guards (aged 25–65 years). Ridge linear regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for age, body mass index, and smoking status, professional stressors including high demands, strictness, conflict/uncertainty, threat avoidance and underload were significant positive predictors of fasting glucose, triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate, Framingham cardiovascular risk score, and temporary work disability. The security profession is in expansion worldwide, and more studies are needed to establish precise health risk predictors, since such data are generally lacking.</p> 2020-12-10T15:28:22+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jovica Jovanović , Ivana Šarac, Jasmina Debeljak Martačić , Gordana Petrović Oggiano , Marta Despotović , Biljana Pokimica, Berim Cupi Work-related stress in specialists in occupational health in Croatia: a pilot study 2020-12-17T10:08:12+01:00 Azra Huršidić Radulović Ana Marija Varošanec <p>The aim of this study was to assess psychosocial stress-related risks in 70 specialists in occupational health (SOHs) who answered the questionnaire designed in 2016 by the Croatian Institute of Public Health – Department of Occupational Health. The average score of 119.7 points (±28.9; range: 38–175) of maximum 275 points revealed medium level of stress. Eighteen respondents had a high level of stress (&gt;135 points). The most prominent and the only stressor with high stress scores was pressure at work, paperwork and multitasking items in particular. After having grouped the SOHs into three groups by type of organisation in which they work, our results singled out SOHs working in public institutions as having the highest levels of stress (average of 143 points). They reported high pressure at work, work overload, and poor relationship with superiors (in terms of communication and support). SOHs working in healthcare centres and private outpatient clinics also reported higher pressure at work, but the latter had no problems with relationship with superiors, while healthcare centre SOHs complained of work underload and advancement constraints. Differences in relationship with superiors, disagreement/conflicts at work and advancement constraints reflect different organisation of work, which was confirmed by later analysis of subgroups. The findings of this pilot study could be of value for SOHs who are engaged in training programmes as examiners and educators, yet they call for further improvement of the questionnaire and for continued investigation that could give a better insight into the role of various stressors in work efficiency and satisfaction among SOHs.</p> 2020-12-15T12:40:29+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Azra Huršidić Radulović